谷歌翻译联合国新疆人权评估1-2

作者:kyotosizumoto  于 2022-9-5 21:58 发表于 最热闹的华人社交网络--贝壳村

作者分类:刘正教授每日时事评论|通用分类:热点杂谈|已有4评论

谷歌翻译联合国新疆人权评估1

 

Introduction

一、介绍

 

1、In late 2017, the Office of the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) began receiving increasing allegations by various civil society groups that members of the Uyghur and other predominantly Muslim ethnic minority communities were missing or had disappeared in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of the People’s Republic of China (hereafter “XUAR” and “China”). In 2018, the UN Working Group on Enforced or Involuntary Disappearances reported a “dramatic” increase in cases from XUAR “with the introduction of “re-education” camps in the Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region by the Government of China”. Numerous research and investigative reports published since that time by a diverse range of non-governmental organizations, think-tanks and media outlets – as well as public accounts by victims – have alleged arbitrary detention on a broad scale in so-called “camps”, as well as claims of torture and other ill-treatment, including sexual violence, and forced labour, among others.

2017年底,联合国人权事务高级专员办事处(OHCHR)开始收到各种民间社会团体越来越多的指控,称维吾尔族和其他以穆斯林为主的少数民族社区成员在新疆维吾尔自治区失踪或失踪。中华人民共和国(以下简称“新疆”和“中国2018年,联合国强迫或非自愿失踪问题工作组报告说,“随着中国政府在新疆维吾尔自治区设立了‘再教育’营”,新疆的案件“急剧”增加。自那时以来,各种非政府组织、智囊团和媒体以及受害者的公共账户发表的大量研究和调查报告都指控在所谓的“集中营”中大规模任意拘留,以及关于酷刑和其他虐待的指控,包括性暴力和强迫劳动等。

During its review of China’s periodic report in August 2018, the UN Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination expressed alarm over numerous reports of the detention of large numbers of ethnic Uyghurs and other Muslim minorities, under the pretext of countering religious extremism in XUAR. The Government stated that “vocational training centres exist for people who had committed “minor offences.” In subsequent policy papers, the Government has presented such centres as part of its strategies to counter terrorism and to prevent or counter “extremism” in XUAR, while at the same time contributing to development, job creation and poverty alleviation in the region.

2、

2018年8月审查中国定期报告期间,联合国消除种族歧视委员会对多份关于以打击新疆的宗教极端主义为借口,拘留大量维吾尔族和其他穆斯林少数民族。政府表示,为犯有“轻微罪行”的人设立了职业培训中心。在随后的政策文件中,政府将这些中心作为其在新疆反恐和预防或打击“极端主义”战略的一部分,同时为该地区的发展、创造就业和减贫做出贡献。

3. In light of the breadth and gravity of the allegations, and the nature of information received, OHCHR has sought access to XUAR to verify claims since 2018. In parallel, and further to its global mandate under General Assembly resolution 48/141 and within existing resources, OHCHR has continued to monitor the situation and assess the allegations, including by reviewing and critically analysing publicly available official documentation, as well as research material, satellite imagery and other open-source information, examining their origin, credibility, weight and reliability in line with standard OHCHR methodology. Throughout OHCHR's review, particular attention was given to official Government documentation and information, including laws, policies, statistical data, court decisions, and official statements and White Papers made public by the Government, as well as a number of other documents that are in the public domain and which OHCHR has assessed as highly likely to be authenti c based on strong indicia of official character. OHCHR has also closely studied information presented by the Government, including in the context of its reviews before the UN human rights treaty bodies and in response to UN Special Procedures communications, and examined material submitted to it by academic and other institutions inside China.

鉴于指控的广度和严重性以及所收到信息的性质,人权高专办自 2018年以来一直寻求与新疆维吾尔自治区联系以核实索赔。在执行大会第48/141号决议规定的全球任务的同时,在现有资源范围内,人权高专办继续监测情况并评估指控,包括审查和批判性分析公开的官方文件以及研究材料、卫星图像和其他开源信息,检查其来源、可信度、重量和可靠性是否符合标准人权高专办方法。在人权高专办的整个审查过程中,特别关注政府官方文件和信息,包括法律、政策、统计数据、法院判决、官方声明和政府公开的白皮书,以及政府公布的一些其他文件。公有领域,并且人权高专办根据强烈的官方特征评估为极有可能是真实的。人权高专办还仔细研究了政府提供的信息,包括在联合国人权条约机构审查和回应联合国特别程序来文的背景下提供的信息,并审查了中国境内学术机构和其他机构提交给它的材料。

4As part of an ongoing process of dialogue, on 17 March 2021, OHCHR formally submitted to the Permanent Mission of China to the United Nations in Geneva a request for specific sets of information, detailing various areas of particular interest, including official data, based on its review of the material up to that stage, but did not receive formal response. On 19 July 2021, OHCHR further proposed a meeting with relevant Government officials to discuss the applicable legal framework as it pertains to counter-terrorism and the prevention and countering of “extremism” in XUAR.

作为正在进行的对话进程的一部分,人权高专办于2021年3月17日正式向中国常驻日内瓦联合国代表团提交了一份要求提供具体信息集的请求,其中详细说明了各个特别感兴趣的领域,包括官方数据,基于其对材料的审查直至该阶段,但未收到正式答复。2021年7月19日,人权高专办进一步提议与相关政府官员举行会议,讨论适用的法律框架,因为它与新疆的反恐和预防和打击“极端主义”有关。

5. By way of supplement to the extensive body of documentation, OHCHR also conducted, in accordance with its standard practice and methodology, 40 in-depth interviews with individuals with direct and first-hand knowledge of the situation in XUAR (24 women and 16 men; 23 Uyghur, 16 ethnic Kazakh, 1 ethnic Kyrgyz). Twenty-six of the interviewees stated they had been either detained or had worked in various facilities across XUAR since 2016. In each case, OHCHR assessed the reliability and credibility of these persons , the veracity of the information conveyed, and its coherence with information obtained from other sources. Securing interviews posed significant challenges. Most of the interviews were conducted remotely for COVID-related and/or security reasons. Further to the “do no harm” principle , additional measures were taken in accordance with standard OHCHR practice to enhance protection of persons providing information.

作为对大量文件的补充,人权高专办还按照其标准做法和方法,对直接和第一手了解新疆情况的个人(24 名女性和16名男性;23维吾尔族、16哈萨克族、1吉尔吉斯族)。26名受访者表示,自2016年以来,他们要么被拘留,要么曾在新疆各地的各种设施中工作。人权高专办在每个案例中评估了这些人的可靠性和可信度、所传达信息的真实性以及与所获得信息的一致性从其他来源。确保采访带来了重大挑战。出于COVID 相关和/或安全原因,大多数采访都是远程进行的。除了“不伤害”原则之外,还根据人权高专办的标准做法采取了额外措施,以加强对提供信息的人的保护。

6The assessment contained in this document is based on China’s obligations under international human rights law, contained principally in the human rights treaties to which China is a State Party, in particular the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (CERD), the Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (CAT), the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW), the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC), the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (CESCR) and the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD). China has also signed, though not yet ratified, the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR). As a result, it is obliged as a matter of law to refrain from any acts that would defeat the object and purpose of this treaty. Additionally, China is bound by human rights norms accepted as constituting customary international law, notably with respect to the right to life, the prohibition of discrimination based on race, religion or sex, and the right to freedom of religion. Moreover, some human rights norms are also considered to constitute jus cogens or peremptory norms of international law, accepted and recognized by the international community of States as a whole as a norm from which no derogation is permitted under any circumstances. These include the prohibitions of arbitrary deprivation of life, torture, slavery, arbitrary detention, racial discrimination, and the commission of international crimes including crimes against humanity. Finally, OHCHR considered standards contained in United Nations instruments on counter-terrorism and the prevention and countering of violent extremism, as well as the International Labour Organization’s labour rights conventions.

本文件中的评估基于中国在国际人权法下的义务,主要包含在中国作为缔约国的人权条约中,特别是《消除一切形式种族歧视公约》(CERD)、 《禁止酷刑和其他残忍、不人道或有辱人格的待遇或处罚公约》(CAT)、《消除对妇女一切形式歧视公约》(CEDAW)、《儿童权利公约》(CRC)、《国际经济公约》 、社会和文化权利 (CESCR) 和《残疾人权利公约》 (CRPD)。中国还签署了《公民权利和政治权利国际公约》(ICCPR),但尚未批准。因此,在法律上,它有义务避免任何有损本条约目标和宗旨的行为。此外,中国受公认构成习惯国际法的人权规范的约束,特别是在生命权、禁止基于种族、宗教或性别的歧视以及宗教自由权方面。此外,一些人权规范也被认为是国际法的强制法或强制性规范,被国际社会作为一个整体接受和承认,是在任何情况下都不允许减损的规范。其中包括禁止任意剥夺生命、酷刑、奴役、任意拘留、种族歧视和犯下包括危害人类罪在内的国际罪行。最后,人权高专办审议了联合国关于反恐和预防和打击暴力极端主义的文书以及国际劳工组织的劳工权利公约中包含的标准。

7、The assessment was shared with the Government for factual comments, as per standard OHCHR practice. The Government’s response, further to its request, is annexed to this report.

按照人权高专办的标准做法,该评估已与政府分享,以征求事实意见.政府应其要求作出的回应,附于本报告之后。

8、Separately, the Government extended an invitation to the High Commissioner to visit China in September 2018. Owing to the COVID-19 pandemic and the need to discuss the parameters of such a visit, agreement for the visit was only reached in March 2022. As part of her visit, it was agreed with the Government of China that the High Commissioner would also visit XUAR, following deployment of an advance team to prepare for her visit, which took place in April and May 2022.

另外,政府向高级专员发出了2018年9月访问中国的邀请。由于COVID-19大流行以及有必要讨论这样的参数访问,直到2022年3月才达成访问协议。作为访问的一部分,高级专员与中国政府商定,高级专员也将访问新疆,随后部署了一个先遣队为她的访问做准备。地点在2022年4月和5月。


谷歌翻译联合国新疆人权评估2

Background

一、背景

 

9. XUAR is China's largest region, covering one-sixth of its total territory, with a population of 25.85 million. It is rich in resources such as coal, gas, oil, lithium, zinc and lead, as well as being a major source of agricultural production, such as of cotton. As it shares external borders with Afghanistan, India, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, Pakistan, Russian Federation and Tajikistan, the region also provides important routes and access to Central Asian markets and beyond.

新疆是中国面积最大的地区,占国土面积的六分之一,人口2585万。它拥有丰富的煤炭、天然气、石油、锂、锌和铅等资源,是棉花等农业生产的主要来源。由于与阿富汗、印度、哈萨克斯坦、吉尔吉斯斯坦、蒙古、巴基斯坦、俄罗斯联邦和塔吉克斯坦接壤,该地区还提供了通往中亚及其他地区市场的重要路线和通道。

10Demographically, XUAR has been one of the fastest growing regions in China and its ethnic composition has gradually shifted since 1949.In 1953, at the time of the first census, over 75 per cent of the total population in the region was constituted by Uyghurs, who are predominantly Sunni Muslim, with ethnic Han Chinese accounting for seven per cent. Other predominantly Muslim ethnic groups living in the region include, in alphabetical sequence, Hui, Kazakh, Kyrgyz, Mongol, and Tajik peoples. According to the latest census and the Government’s White Paper on “Xinjiang Population Dynamics and Data”, while the overall population of both Han and Uyghur ethnic groups has grown, the Uyghur population now constitutes about 45 per cent of the region’s total and Han Chinese about 42 per cent. These shifts appear to be largely the consequence of ethnic Han migration into the western regions, including as a result of incentives provided by Government policies.

在人口方面,新疆维吾尔自治区一直是中国发展最快的地区之一,其民族构成自1949年以来逐渐发生变化。1953年,在第一次人口普查时,该地区总人口的75%以上由维吾尔人构成,主要是逊尼派穆斯林,汉族占7%。居住在该地区的其他主要穆斯林民族包括按字母顺序排列的回族、哈萨克族、吉尔吉斯族、蒙古族和塔吉克族。根据最新的人口普查和政府的“新疆人口动态和数据”白皮书,虽然汉族和维吾尔族的总人口都在增长,但维吾尔族人口现在占全区总人口的45%左右,汉族人口约42%。这些转变似乎主要是汉族迁移到西部地区的结果,包括政府政策提供的激励措施的结果。

11Historically, the population of XUAR is one of the poorest in China. It has been the focus of numerous development and poverty alleviation policies by the central authorities.According to State media, 2.3 million people in XUAR emerged from poverty between 2014 and 2018, of which 1.9 million were from southern Xinjiang, which has the highest population of ethnic groups. According to official Government information, in 2021, Xinjiang registered seven per cent growth in gross domestic product (GDP) and an increase of per capita disposable income for urban and rural residents of eight per cent and 10.8 per cent. Moreover, 1.69 million rural houses and 1.56 million government-subsidized housing projects in cities and towns have reportedly been constructed. UN human rights mechanisms have raised concerns, however, about discrimination in economic, social and cultural spheres in ethnic regions, including XUAR, over many years.

从历史上看,新疆的人口是中国最贫困的地区之一。它一直是中央多项发展和扶贫政策的重点。据官方媒体报道,2014年至2018年,新疆有230万人摆脱贫困,其中190万人来自南疆,南疆是中国民族人口最多的地区。根据政府官方信息,2021年,新疆国内生产总值(GDP)增长7%,城乡居民人均可支配收入分别增长8%和10.8%。另有169万套农村住房和156万套城镇保障性安居工程。然而,多年来,联合国人权机制对包括新疆在内的少数民族地区的经济、社会和文化领域的歧视提出了担忧。

12. In July 2009, riots broke out in the regional capital Urumqi. The then United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights called for an investigation into the causes of the violence. The Government reported that “from 1990 to the end of 2016, separatist, terrorist and extremist forces launched thousands of terrorist attacks in Xinjiang, killing large numbers of innocent people and hundreds of police officers, and causing immeasurable damage to property”. There were also a series of violent incidents in different Chinese cities outside XUAR, killing scores of people, and which the Government, for its part, has consistently characterised as terrorist in character. At the same time, the involvement of numbers of Uyghurs as fighters in armed groups, including in Afghanistan and Syria, subject to UN counter-terrorism sanctions, continued to be reported and remained a cause for concern for both the Chinese authorities and more widely in the international community.

2009年7月自治区首府乌鲁木齐爆发骚乱时任联合国人权事务高级专员呼吁调查暴力起因。政府报告称“1990年至2016年底,分裂、恐怖、极端势力在新疆发动了数千起恐怖袭击,造成大量人员死亡。无辜人民和数百名警察,并造成无法估量的财产损失”。新疆以外的中国不同城市也发生了一系列暴力事件,造成数十人死亡,而政府方面一直将其定性为恐怖分子。与此同时,继续有报道称,许多维吾尔人作为战斗人员参与包括阿富汗和叙利亚在内的武装团体,并受到联合国反恐制裁,这仍然是中国当局和更广泛关注的原因。2014年5月,随着这些事态发展,政府发起了所谓的“严厉打击”运动,以打击恐怖主义威胁,并将其与新疆的宗教“极端主义”和分裂主义联系起来。

13In May 2014, in the wake of these developments, the Government launched what it termed a “Strike Hard” campaign” to combat terrorist threats, which it linked to religious “extremism” and separatism in XUAR. In a 2019 White Paper, the Government stated that “since 2014, Xinjiang has destroyed 1,588 violent and terrorist gangs, arrested 12,995 terrorists, seized 2,052 explosive devices, punished 30,645 people for 4,858 illegal religious activities, and confiscated 345,229 copies of illegal religious materials”. The Government has asserted the success of its approach, reporting that there have been no terrorist incidents in XUAR since 2016.

政府在2019年的白皮书中表示,“2014年以来,新疆共捣毁暴力恐怖团伙1588个,抓获恐怖分子12995人,缴获爆炸装置2052件,查处非法宗教活动4858件30645 人,收缴非法宗教资料345229份。政府声称其方法取得了成功,报告称自2016年以来新疆没有发生恐怖事件。


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发表评论 评论 (4 个评论)

16 回复 vector 2022-9-6 08:23
我认为,任何一个在中国有过求学,工作经历的的人,都知道新疆问题,是西方的一些政客,一些媒体人们,在放他们的西狗屁,是无耻的造谣.
2 回复 john71 2022-9-7 00:28
vector: 我认为,任何一个在中国有过求学,工作经历的的人,都知道新疆问题,是西方的一些政客,一些媒体人们,在放他们的西狗屁,是无耻的造谣.
乞求上帝佛主阿拉,让你们一家都进入新疆集中营吧!!!让助纣为虐的,睁眼说瞎话的和揣着明白装糊涂的都得到应有的报应吧!
5 回复 vector 2022-9-7 03:42
john71: 乞求上帝佛主阿拉,让你们一家都进入新疆集中营吧!!!让助纣为虐的,睁眼说瞎话的和揣着明白装糊涂的都得到应有的报应吧!
你是个人吗?垃圾.
造谣说假话遭雷劈哦
1 回复 john71 2022-9-9 00:10
vector: 你是个人吗?垃圾.
造谣说假话遭雷劈哦
贼喊捉贼是您的强项,假大空墙国的五毛居然敢说“造谣说假话要遭雷劈”,你和你的主子独裁中共政府有哪一刻不在撒谎愚民的?谎言大国又是如何而来的?全世界的大翻译运动又是什么?你死命拥护一个如此邪恶极权的政府,这不是助纣为虐是什么?!!!你说新疆木有集中营,那我说应该让你们一家都进入新疆集中营有错吗?为了一个你认为根本不存在的集中营你紧张激动个鸟啊?     

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