New Words

作者:putongren10  于 2011-4-17 11:33 发表于 最热闹的华人社交网络--贝壳村


Accommodation: process through which changes is made to an existing knowledge structure(schema), or a new structure constructed as a result of new information.
Adaptation: the adjustment of existing knowledge structures(schemata)through either the process of assimalation or the process of accommodation.
Anorexia nervosa: eating disorder charaterized by very limited food intake.
Assimilation: incorporation of new knowledge into existing knowledge structures(schemata).
Assisted learning/guided participation: process used by a teacher or tutor when providing scaffolding within a student's zone of proximal development.
Bulimia: eating disorder charaterized by overeating and then getting rid of the food by self-induced vomiting of laxatives.
Clique: group of peers who share the similar values and beliefs: smaller in size than a crowd, but larger than a small group of friends.
Cognitive development: change in mental development.
Concrete operational: the stage of Piaget's theory characterized by a child's need for concrete objects of situations in order for logical thinking to take place.
Crowd: large group of peers who share some similar attributesw, interests, and desired activities(but not close friendship); usually therea are identifiable labels for these group to which students feel affiliation.
Development: systematic, lasting changes that take place over the course of the human life span.
Disequilibrium: state of unbalance that occurs after interation with environment that conflict with our prior representation of events or objects.
Equilibrium: the constant search for a balance between what we already know and spme new knowledge or experience.
Formal operational: the stage of Piaget's theory characterized by a child's ability to think logically using abstract iddeas and concepts.
Identity vs. Identity Confusion: Erokson stage in which students emerge feeling as if they can or cannot adequately answer the questions, "Who am I".
Imaginary audience: adolescents' belief that everyone is as concerned about their behabior and appearance as they are.
Industry vs.Inferiority: Erikson stage in which students emerge either feeling eager to engage in productive work or feeling incompetent in dealikng with social situations and with their peers.
Maturation: internallu determined change.
Organization: continual process of arranging information, objects, and events within mental systems(shemata).
Peer network: large group of peers with whom students associate.
Personal fable: adolescents' belief that they are special in the sense of being unique, invulneral , and omnipotent.
Physical development: changes in the human body dependent to a large extent on gens.
Prepubescence: the period life immediately before puberty, often marked by accelerated physical growth.
Private speech:
Vygostky described provate speech, of self-talk, as a critical factor in guiding and minitoring thinking and problems solving, especially for children(but also sometimes used by adults).
Puberty: the stage of adolescence in which individual becomes physiologically capable of sexual reproduction.
Reflectivity: the tendency to think about what is going on in one's own mind and to study oneself.
Scaffolding: guidance and support from adults or peers that is gradually withdrawn as competence improves.
Schema(schemata) building blocks of thought that enable us to understand our world and help guide our interaction of oneself.
Self-concept: concious, cognitive perception and evaluation of oneself.
Self-esteem/self-image: the global value humans place on their own particular characteristics, behaviors, and abilities.
Social development: change that occurs as humans interact with others.
Stages of moral reasoning: levels of thinking processes related to judgements of right or wrong.
Zone of proximal development: the difference between intellectual tasks that children can perform alone nad those that they can perform with assistance of an adult or more skilled peer.
Accommodations: providing what is needede for instruction for students with special needsw or ELL students by adapting or adjusting, such as by using different instructional approaches and strategies.
Acculturation: when a cultural group accepts and takes on the cultural norms of another cultural group.
Additive approach: (to bilingualism) the view-point that acquisition of a second language is positive that is does not necessitate forgeiting the first language.
Assimilatin: the process by which a minority group becomes a part of the majority group, changing itself and chagning the group in power too.
Authentic assessments: assessments conducted in real-life settings or simulations that are close to real life.
Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills(BNICS) social, conventional languange.
Bilingualism: comfort and facility in two languages such that individuals are users of formal and informal aspectsof both languages.
Class structure: defined in terms of income(low, medium, and high).
Cognitive Academic Languange Proficiency:(CALP) academic, abstract language that normally takes from 5-7 years to acquire when learning a new languange.
Critical pedagogy: an approach in which students learn to "question the question", to seek their own answers, and to examine all areas critically when developing decision-making nad social-action skills.
Cutural relativism: the ability to view a culture as if you were a member of that culture.
Culture: perceptions, beliefs, and behaviors acquired from families and those around us; usually a function of "exposure" or socialization.
Deficit model: viewing individuals who are not of one's own culture as deficient nad generalizing this negative perception to all behaviors that are particlar to that individual's culture.
Digital Divide: differences between the "haves" and the "have-nots" in access to technology resources.
Disability group: those who lost physical, cognitive and emotional functions.
Discrimination: prejuidiced or prejudicial outlooks, actions, or treamtment.
Diversity: a vareity of cultures.
Dominant culture: mainstream culture.
English Language Learners(ELLs): English is their sencond language.
Empowerment: to give credits to positive leatning and education.
Equity: freedom from bias.
Ethnicity: a national heritage.
Ethnocentrism: a belief that his/her ethnicity is superior.
Exceptionalities; different from others in learning.
Feminizatin of poverty: a large segment of the populations below the poverty line that consists of female-headed households and their children.
Funds of knowledge: benefits from a student's experiences of family to school related activities and practices.
Gender bias: pertaining to preferences by teachers toward males and females.
Gender equity: nonpreferential treatment of males and females.
Gifted and talented: students with identifies special talents and abilities sho receive special instructions.
Handicap: disability.
Inclusion: disabled students should be taught with their non-disabled peers.
Individualized Education Plan(IEP) plan developed for students with exceptionalities to identify their needs.
Individual trasition plan (ITP) IEP plan for 16 years or older.
Involuntary immigrants, those whose families have no choices, but immigration.
Language acquisition: natural and gradual acquisition of the language.
Learned helplessness. lack of belief in leaning.
Least restrictive environment (LRE): regular classromm allowing the exceptionalist for them to function maximumly.
Mainstream culture: dominant culture.
Melting pot analogy: different cultures.
Migrant workers: students who spend a few months in one school and then in another.
Minority: contrast to majority in ethnic group.
Modification: changes made in instructions and assessments.
Monolingualism: only one language.
Norms:expected behavior in one culture.
Pluralism: minority possessed equal status in that majority culture.
Public law 94-142: provide free and appropriate education and nondiscriminatory evaluation, and IEP and IDEA.
Race:human group.
Salad bowl analogy: different cultures with their identity.
Semilingualism: limited aspects of other languages.
Social economic class: a composite of occupation, education attainment and income.
Standadized tests: the uniform tests.
Substractive approach: (bilinggual) the view that the acquisition of the second language is successful when the first language is forfeited. 
Chapter 3
Age-appropriateness: specified skills and tasks suitable to age group.
Analysis level: Bloom's taxonomy, highest level of thinking.
Application level: the lower-level thinking.
Assessment: checking how much learning has taken place.
Authentic activities/conditions: real world activities.
Closure: summary of a topic/lesson.
Conprehension level: level of understanding, the second level in Bloom's taxonomy.
Cooperative learning: instruction for a small group or partners to work together.
District/campus goal: distric/campus' own goals.
Evaluation level: the highest level of thinking.
Flexible grouping: a short time group for working on a special project.
Focus: teacher's plan to make students interesting in some manner.
Goal: a general idea teachers want students to learn.
Instructional alignment:instructions to support the goals.
Integrated/thematic approch: many subjects are included in a central idea.
Interdisciplinary: plan integrating many subjects.
Intradisciplinary: integrating the different concepts in the same subject.
Knowledge level: lowest level of thinking.
Long-range goal: general map for the entire year.
Long-range plan:plan to match the long-range goal.
mini-closure:summary during a course of a lesson.

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