墨西哥湾的水不能喝

作者:春苗  于 2010-5-19 22:30 发表于 最热闹的华人社交网络--贝壳村

通用分类:政经军事|已有28评论

关键词:

墨西哥湾深海钻井平台失火爆炸,油井仍在跑油

    月初的时候跟朋友吃饭,因为其中有两位在BP工作,大家就很自然地关心到他们公司上个月底在墨西哥湾的深海平台起火爆炸的事。朋友说BP是租家,平台的拥有者是目前世界上最大的深海钻井设备出租商Transocean公司。

    听说大火烧了两天,平台最终沉入海底。两家公司股票跌了不少不说,更糟糕的是目前无法关闭油井,井中跑出来的油还在继续污染着大海......下面的报导和图片是朋友送过来的。

    根据这篇文章,我觉得深海采油就目前的科技条件来说仍然是一件很冒险的事。海那么深,平台不可能像浅海那样可以用锚固定,漂浮不定是无法避免的。他们现在打算在附近再打一口井,希望因为新井抽油时形成的压差导致目前的这口井不再跑油。

    You may have heard the news in the last two days about the Deepwater Horizon drilling rig which caught fire, burned for two days, then sank in 5,000 ft of water in the Gulf of Mexico. There are still 11 men missing, and they are not expected to be found.
    The rig belongs to Transocean, the world’s biggest offshore drilling contractor. The rig was originally contracted through the year 2013 to BP and was working on BP’s Macondo exploration well when the fire broke out. The rig costs about $500,000 per day to contract. The full drilling spread, with helicopters and support vessels and other services, will cost closer to $1,000,000 per day to operate in the course of drilling for oil and gas. The rig cost about $350,000,000 to build in 2001 and would cost at least double that to replace today.
    The rig represents the cutting edge of drilling technology. It is a floating rig, capable of working in up to 10,000 ft water depth. The rig is not moored; It does not use anchors because it would be too costly and too heavy to suspend this mooring load from the floating structure. Rather, a triply-redundant computer system uses satellite positioning to control powerful thrusters that keep the rig on station within a few feet of its intended location, at all times. This is called Dynamic Positioning.
    The rig had apparently just finished cementing steel casing in place at depths exceeding 18,000 ft. The next operation was to suspend the well so that the rig could move to its next drilling location, the idea being that a rig would return to this well later in order to complete the
work necessary to bring the well into production.
    It is thought that somehow formation fluids – oil /gas – got into the wellbore and were undetected until it was too late to take action. With a floating drilling rig setup, because it moves with the waves, currents, and winds, all of the main pressure control equipment sits on the
seabed – the uppermost unmoving point in the well. This pressure control equipment – the Blowout Preventers, or ‘BOP’s” as they’recalled, are controlled with redundant systems from the rig. In the event of a serious emergency, there are multiple Panic Buttons to hit, and even fail-safe Deadman systems that should be automatically engaged when something of this proportion breaks out. None of them were aparently activated, suggesting that the blowout was especially swift to escalate at the surface. The flames were visible up to about 35 miles away. Not the glow – the flames. They were 200 – 300 ft high.
    All of this will be investigated and it will be some months before all of the particulars are known. For now, it is enough to say that this marvel of modern technology, which had been operating with an excellent safety record, has burned up and sunk taking souls with it.
    The well still is apparently flowing oil, which is appearing at the surface as a slick. They have been working with remotely operated vehicles, or ROV’s which are essentially tethered miniature submarines with manipulator arms and other equipment that can perform work underwater while the operator sits on a vessel. These are what were used to explore the Titanic, among other things. Every floating rig has one on board and they are in constant use. In this case, they are deploying ROV’s from dedicated service vessels. They have been trying to close the well in using a specialized port on the BOP’s and a pumping arrangement on their ROV’s. They have been unsuccessful so far. Specialized pollution control vessels have been scrambled to start working the spill, skimming the oil up.
    In the coming weeks they will move in at least one other rig to drill a fresh well that will intersect the blowing one at its pay zone. They will use technology that is capable of drilling from a floating rig, over 3 miles deep to an exact specific point in the earth – with a target radius of just a few feet plus or minus. Once they intersect their target, a heavy fluid will be pumped that exceeds the formation’s pressure, thus causing the flow to cease and rendering the well safe at last. It will take at least a couple of months to get this done, bringing all available technology to bear. It will be an ecological disaster if the well flows all of the while; Optimistically, it could bridge off downhole.
    It’s a sad day when something like this happens to any rig, but even more so when it happens to something on the cutting edge of our capabilities. The photos that follow show the progression of events over the 36 hours from catching fire to sinking.




A sister rig, the Nautilus, being transported on a Heavy-List vessel

the Deepwater Horizon on location in better days 1

the Deepwater Horizon on location in better days 2

Taken shortly after the rig caught fire – the mast is still there

The drilling mast has toppled over here – they usually melt pretty fast when fire breaks out

Support vessels using their fire fighting gear to cool the rig

From about 10 miles away – dawn of Day 1

Support vessels using their fire fighting gear to cool the rig – note the list developing

About noon Day 1 – List is pronounced now

From a satellite, overhead

Early morning Day 2 – Note the hole burned through the aluminum helideck

Day 2, morning – settling quite low in the water now – fuel and oil slick forming


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发表评论 评论 (28 个评论)

2 回复 Cristal 2010-5-19 22:58
It is sad news.I haven't heard yet. Thank for this information.
永远不能喝了吗?有办法清除污染吗?
3 回复 春苗 2010-5-19 23:07
Cristal: It is sad news.I haven't heard yet. Thank for this information.
永远不能喝了吗?有办法清除污染吗?
好像政府有关部门在责成两家公司清理吧。
3 回复 Cristal 2010-5-19 23:12
春苗: 好像政府有关部门在责成两家公司清理吧。
那还差不多。
3 回复 snortbsd 2010-5-19 23:18
well, sadly the disater struck already and BP was caught off guard.

what i really concern is: is china ready for the potential disasters that will certainly strike on those chinese deep sea oil drilling rigs?

yes it will, sooner or later. china better be ready, i mean, just like quake strikes, china should have plans, equipment and disaster response teams for such special cases.

obviously BP didn't have such plans/devices that were ready for such disasters...
2 回复 我思念 2010-5-19 23:33
GOM的水本来就不能喝, 太咸了。 题目的这句话应该跟鱼说, 但他们又听不懂。
3 回复 marnifan 2010-5-20 00:09
我思念: GOM的水本来就不能喝, 太咸了。 题目的这句话应该跟鱼说, 但他们又听不懂。
3 回复 xqw63 2010-5-20 00:27
太可怕了
2 回复 春苗 2010-5-20 00:48
我思念: GOM的水本来就不能喝, 太咸了。 题目的这句话应该跟鱼说, 但他们又听不懂。
你要是去游泳,不就可能喝水吗?
4 回复 春苗 2010-5-20 00:49
xqw63: 太可怕了
是的。这好像是至今最严重的一次。
2 回复 xqw63 2010-5-20 01:16
春苗: 是的。这好像是至今最严重的一次。
这么说,深海钻油经常发生小范围漏油?
5 回复 春苗 2010-5-20 01:38
xqw63: 这么说,深海钻油经常发生小范围漏油?
好像不是。我听到的是1989年,exxon的平台在阿拉斯加海上发生过漏油事件。
3 回复 春苗 2010-5-20 01:42
xqw63: 这么说,深海钻油经常发生小范围漏油?
我印象中多年前在石油公司工作的中国人说过,说美国公司都到深海去采油了,中国的这个技术还没到。但是我也听说这里的公司到大连买船的事。因为不是搞这一行的,说不出道道来。
4 回复 linzhiding 2010-5-20 03:52
掌声响起+鲜花=》春苗

   如果中国渤海湾发生同样的事情。。。。美国+西方还不把中国吃啦?

  巨量喷油将近一个月,请问这种直接污染全球海洋生物=》间接污染人类

应该请宇宙法庭来审判美国英国,这将影响全人类的基因。。。别当儿戏!
3 回复 春苗 2010-5-20 04:02
linzhiding: 掌声响起+鲜花=》春苗

   如果中国渤海湾发生同样的事情。。。。美国+西方还不把中国吃啦?

  巨量喷油将近一个月,请问这种直接污染全球海洋生物=》间接污染
后果确实很严重。不知道联合国对这样的事会不会立案?
3 回复 linzhiding 2010-5-20 04:20
春苗: 后果确实很严重。不知道联合国对这样的事会不会立案?
谢谢教授关注!

应该可以计算出来: 污染原油总量/全球海洋总量=?  每一口海水污染量=?
3 回复 yzfoto 2010-5-20 05:26
好惨啊!
3 回复 春苗 2010-5-20 06:44
linzhiding: 谢谢教授关注!

应该可以计算出来: 污染原油总量/全球海洋总量=?  每一口海水污染量=?
不能那么算。那么算可能就不算什么了。问题是美国南部的海湾都受到直接伤害。特别是路易斯安娜州。
3 回复 春苗 2010-5-20 06:46
yzfoto: 好惨啊!
是。肯定会飘上来很多死鱼吧。
2 回复 xinsheng 2010-5-20 11:42
sad.
4 回复 nierdaye 2010-5-20 13:00
environmental disaster.
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