民主是一种文化

作者:东方华  于 2010-6-19 05:01 发表于 最热闹的华人社交网络--贝壳村

通用分类:政经军事|已有62评论

关键词:

民主是一种文化

 

每当提及民主二字,都会引出许多话来。这很自然,对于不同的人来说,各有不同的理解,民主也因此代表着不同的含义。要体会这种差异并不难,比较一下百度词条和维基字典的定义即可看出明显差异,这些差异中比较鲜明的一点,就在是否引入阶级的概念。

 

要我说,民主是很多事情,但首先是一种文化。文化者,即是人类生存经验总汇的承袭和进化,不同的人类种群经历了不同的环境和历程,自然也就形成了各自不同的文化,而民主确实不是传统中华文化的成份。趋于共识的看法认为,民主的理念和实践形成于公元前5世纪的雅典文化。同时期的中华则正处在春秋时期,那时没有民主的理念,但是早已有了民与主的概念,并且已经被先哲们阐述的淋漓尽致。值得骄傲的是,再向前推进两百多年,中国就有了共和的概念与实践。

 

民主一词真正引入中国是在晚清民主运动的萌芽时期,是洋务运动的副产品,当时不知道究竟应该如何表达,索性先称其为“德先生”,另外一位则是“赛先生”。后来归于“民主”即是取其“民众做主”之意。回味古时先哲们的感悟,道家重道,人为三才之一,居于天地之间,人中佼佼者即为圣人,此外则非常淡化人的阶级差别;儒家则不同,重礼教纲常,人分三六九等,礼法繁複,等级森严,卑贱有序,这才有了概念上完整的人主与人民的区别;法家是认同这种阶级差异的,只是在约束人民的手段上迥然不同而已。

 

民主先驱中山先生有一句名言叫“天下为公”,其实这个“公”字就很有讲究。在古中国明确有了社会等级的最初阶段,一方首领即为“公”,说“天下为公”其实是说天下属于一国之君。当然了,现代“公”的概念是社会大公,说天下为公,是人人共享社会的意思,不会出现岐意和误解。若按照原始“公”的含意,相当于说:天下无公。换言之,民为主,或者民无主,民主社会就是没有个体或群体君主的社会。

 

百年民主运动的接力,延续到了共产党的成功,按道理是要建立了一个“天下为公”或曰“天下无公”的社会。各界人士齐集一堂,共商国家大事,去除了国号中的“民主”字样,代之以人民共和国,国家也从此由“人民”实行了“专政”,美其名曰人民民主专政。可是专政原本不是一个公平的制度,比如奴隶社会是奴隶主的专政,封建社会是地主君王的专政,但是现在是人民在实行专政,听起来合乎大义,也就义正词严了。何谓人民?就是享有人格的民,阶级敌人自不在话下,他们已经不是社会中有政治权利的人,而是人民专政的对象,自然也就不是人民中的一员。这个敌人的概念,也是与时俱进的,只要你反对共产党的主张,那就是“与人民为敌”,专政自然就有了新的对象。

 

可是人民都来说了算,似乎也不成,于是乎就有了“优秀代表”的概念,革命时期叫“无产阶级先锋队”,现在的称呼叫“精英”。“民主”再次分了家,人民正本清源依然是民,优秀代表则成为社会新的主人。传统中国文化也重新有了用武之地,更精确地讲主要是对儒家和法家理论的重新发掘。古时叫“君君臣臣”,现在叫“民主集中”,古时叫“不务德而务法”,现在叫“稳定压倒一切”。由此可知,我们回归民族文化本真的部分,就是现今的“中国特色”。

 

这种人主风范,是一种居高临下的绝对威严。这种优越感,不光是执政党有,还是其捍卫者的共同习性。所以,他们很难与别人平等对话,只要你敢于挑战这种威严,那你就是非痴即傻,就有百万个理由对你怒髮冲冠、口诛笔伐,甚至于破口大駡。这种做派在村裡也屡见不鲜,究其原委,根子还在祖传文化上,我们中国的特色之中原本就不曾有过的“民主”的文化。

 

殊不知,形成这种优秀民族文化传承的过程,正是“百家争鸣,百花齐放”的春秋战国时期,毛主席在总结先哲们的睿智之后这样说过:“知无不言,言无不尽,言者无罪,闻者足戒。”可惜后来才知道那只是对与人民内部矛盾来讲的。再后来才知道,即便是在人民内部也不全是这样。这就是我们的民主文化现状。

 

那么究竟的什么是民主文化?那就是将双百方针和十六字真经放之四海,使社会人人享有充分说话的政治环境,人们不会因言获罪,可以毫无顾忌地说真话、说心里话,这种言论自由的精神就是民主文化。

 

 

 

 

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发表评论 评论 (62 个评论)

2 回复 itute 2010-6-19 05:08
春秋战国时期是我国历史上思想最开明的时期
2 回复 东方华 2010-6-19 05:11
itute: 春秋战国时期是我国历史上思想最开明的时期
是的!
2 回复 酸柚子 2010-6-19 05:15
说的好
2 回复 snortbsd 2010-6-19 05:23
hahaha, funny, you are not????

your guys love the "high moral ground". your blog here just painted a perfect pictures of your self-righteous crowd...

proof? just look back all of your blogs and comments, not just yours, also those "democracy" hummers....
2 回复 fanlaifuqu 2010-6-19 05:26
写得好好!第一个副词,第二个形容词!
2 回复 方方犬 2010-6-19 05:45
什么不是一种文化?汪汪
2 回复 东方华 2010-6-19 05:54
snortbsd: hahaha, funny, you are not????

your guys love the "high moral ground". your blog here just painted a perfect pictures of your self-righteo
why you are so up against the idea of democracy?
why don't you go tell your fellow americans that the best thing they need is a king ...
2 回复 东方华 2010-6-19 05:55
fanlaifuqu: 写得好好!第一个副词,第二个形容词!
范老明鉴!
2 回复 东方华 2010-6-19 05:57
方方犬: 什么不是一种文化?汪汪
比如说:狗拿耗子...
2 回复 snortbsd 2010-6-19 06:00
东方华: why you are so up against the idea of democracy?
why don't you go tell your fellow americans that the best thing they need is a king ...
am i against democracy or "democracy"???
2 回复 东方华 2010-6-19 06:10
snortbsd: am i against democracy or "democracy"???
make up your mind, man ...
2 回复 snortbsd 2010-6-19 06:12
东方华: make up your mind, man ...
make up what?

i know who i am, where i stand, and what i stand for...
2 回复 东方华 2010-6-19 06:21
snortbsd: make up what?

i know who i am, where i stand, and what i stand for...
oh, good. explain to me just what are the differences between democracy and "democracy" in your mind ...
2 回复 方方犬 2010-6-19 06:22
东方华: 比如说:狗拿耗子...
比如说:东方华拿耗子...
2 回复 snortbsd 2010-6-19 06:40
东方华: oh, good. explain to me just what are the differences between democracy and "democracy" in your mind ...
well, the essence of western democracy is the rule of laws. one can see that clearly from the history of the western civilization. it didn't happen overnight, not few years, not few decades. it started from 14th century, all the way to now....

"democracy" is a pseudo concept at best. nothing in substances, just big mouth slogans and claims. you want the freedom of this, you want the freedom of that, just not responsibilities...

in essence, this pseudo 'democracy" is anarchism with a nice looking veil...
2 回复 东方华 2010-6-19 06:47
snortbsd: well, the essence of western democracy is the rule of laws. one can see that clearly from the history of the western civilization. it didn't happen o
Why is it neccesorily a "western" idea?
No one is arguing about the "the rule of laws", but does it make any differences whether the laws are made by the people or the ruler?
You might just save your quotation marks  when you are so habitantent to call others names ruther than fill in with your own substances ...
2 回复 东方华 2010-6-19 06:50
方方犬: 比如说:东方华拿耗子...
马甲狗狗说我也是狗狗,哈哈
2 回复 snortbsd 2010-6-19 06:53
东方华: Why is it neccesorily a "western" idea?
No one is arguing about the "the rule of laws", but does it make any differences whether
well, just look back all of your guys posts? were there anything original from your guys?

so with your version of "democracy", you guys would be ones to make rules? when you can not even follow the rules prc has now, how could i believe you are for a true nature of democracy?

ok, you don't like "the rule of laws" in prc and determined to be up against them, then why not just straightforward to say you guys want to overthrow the government...
2 回复 snortbsd 2010-6-19 07:00
东方华: Why is it neccesorily a "western" idea?
No one is arguing about the "the rule of laws", but does it make any differences whether
btw, to me, i am only familiar with the concept of western democracy, i had and have my study on that. i don't know what kind of true democracy china will have someday, but i do realize that china has to go through own pains, find own paths for better, more democratic future. this would not happen in few years, it might take more than few decades.

looked back last 30 years, had experienced different events in different parts of the world, had witnessed some horrors in some countries, personally,  i feel confident for that china is on its right direction...
2 回复 东方华 2010-6-19 07:23
snortbsd: well, just look back all of your guys posts? were there anything original from your guys?

so with your version of "democracy", you guys w
算啦,陪您说会英语,算是表示礼让吧。
你总是不能实事求是地讨论问题,简单回复你吧:
1。 不要动不动就是“你们”如何如何。每个人都在阐述自己的观点,有人认同,有人反对,这很正常,大可不必统而化之;
2。 不管我的“民主”是哪一版,你说支持民主,那你的“民主”概念又是什么?
3。 守法是每个人必须做的事情。这不是争论的要点,法家在中国存活了两千多年了,都是合理的吗?如果不合理的话,可以议论吗?可以反对吗?
说中国的事儿,请你还是用中文吧。
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