美国是如何走出大萧条的

作者:wcat  于 2011-11-10 22:40 发表于 最热闹的华人社交网络--贝壳村

通用分类:热点杂谈|已有8评论

摘自Wikipedia,Google 翻译,见 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Depression

世界上大多数国家从大萧条复苏开始于1933年[9]在美国,恢复1933年年初开始[9]美国并没有恢复到1929年国民生产总值超过十年,仍然有失业在1940年尽管1933年的25%高失业降到约15%

经济学家之间关于美国经济扩张继续通过罗斯福1937年的经济衰退中断动力没有达成共识

在主流经济学家普遍的看法是罗斯福的新政政策造成或加速经济复苏尽管他的政策从来没有侵略性足以使经济完全走出衰退一些经济学家已经称为注意力性通货膨胀的预期上升的名义利息罗斯福的行动预示着规划效果[39][40]这些相同的导致1937年中断的经济衰退通货再膨胀政策回滚一个有助于扭转通货再膨胀政策1935年“银行法”,从而有效地提高准备金要求,造成了货币紧缩政策,有助于阻止恢复[41][42]国内生产总值1938年返回向上倾斜


克里斯蒂娜罗默巨大国际黄金流入造成货币供应量增长美国经济复苏的重要来源经济出现自我纠正的迹象黄金流入部分原因是由于美元贬值部分原因由于在欧洲政治局势恶化[43]在他们的著作一个美国,米尔顿弗里德曼和安娜J ·施瓦茨货币史归因于恢复货币因素认为,这多少管理不善,联邦储备系统的放缓美联储主席伯南克现任主席同意货币因素无论是在全球经济衰退最终恢复起到重要角色[44]伯南克还认为,体制因素,特别是金融体系的重建和重组发挥强有力的作用[ 45],并指出抑郁需要国际视野检查[46]经济学家哈罗德L.科尔和Lee E. Ohanian相信抑郁症四年经济已恢复正常除了继续令人沮丧的影响 [47]手指缺乏价格和工资下降灵活性罗斯福政府政策全国工业复兴法鼓励

Turning point and recovery

In most countries of the world, recovery from the Great Depression began in 1933.[9] In the U.S., recovery began in early 1933,[9] but the U.S. did not return to 1929 GNP for over a decade and still had an unemployment rate of about 15% in 1940, albeit down from the high of 25% in 1933.

There is no consensus among economists regarding the motive force for the U.S. economic expansion that continued through most of the Roosevelt years (and the 1937 recession that interrupted it).

The common view among mainstream economists is that Roosevelt's New Deal policies either caused or accelerated the recovery, although his policies were never aggressive enough to bring the economy completely out of recession. Some economists have also called attention to the positive effects from expectations of reflation and rising nominal interest rates that Roosevelt's words and actions portended.[39][40] It was the rollback of those same reflationary policies that led to the interrupting recession of 1937.[41] One contributing policy that reversed reflation was the Banking Act of 1935, which effectively raised reserve requirements, causing a monetary contraction that helped to thwart the recovery.[42] GDP returned to its upward slope in 1938.

According to Christina Romer, the money supply growth caused by huge international gold inflows was a crucial source of the recovery of the United States economy, and that the economy showed little sign of self-correction. The gold inflows were partly due to devaluation of the U.S. dollar and partly due to deterioration of the political situation in Europe.[43] In their book, A Monetary History of the United States, Milton Friedman and Anna J. Schwartz also attributed the recovery to monetary factors, and contended that it was much slowed by poor management of money by the Federal Reserve System. Current Chairman of the Federal Reserve Ben Bernanke agrees that monetary factors played important roles both in the worldwide economic decline and eventual recovery.[44] Bernanke, also sees a strong role for institutional factors, particularly the rebuilding and restructuring of the financial system,[45] and points out that the Depression needs to be examined in international perspective.[46] Economists Harold L. Cole and Lee E. Ohanian, believe that the economy should have returned to normal after four years of depression except for continued depressing influences, and point the finger to the lack of downward flexibility in prices and wages, encouraged by Roosevelt Administration policies such as the National Industrial Recovery Act.[47]



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发表评论 评论 (8 个评论)

3 回复 在美一方 2011-11-10 22:45
太懒了,即使用google translate,你略加修饰让文法通顺一点点也好啊,砖。
3 回复 wcat 2011-11-10 22:46
在美一方: 太懒了,即使用google translate,你略加修饰让文法通顺一点点也好啊,砖。
没时间啊  加上英文原文了。
4 回复 yuki-1217 2011-11-10 23:01
在美一方: 太懒了,即使用google translate,你略加修饰让文法通顺一点点也好啊,砖。
   他只顾乱弹琴了~~~
2 回复 在美一方 2011-11-10 23:08
yuki-1217:    他只顾乱弹琴了~~~
也!就是,那头摇晃的,早晕了  
3 回复 白露为霜 2011-11-10 23:19
我说哪,第一句就看不懂。到底是我的中文烂还是Google 翻译烂。
3 回复 wcat 2011-11-10 23:21
白露为霜: 我说哪,第一句就看不懂。到底是我的中文烂还是Google 翻译烂。
看下面的英文吧
2 回复 meistersinger 2011-11-10 23:54
WWW II是复苏的真正的原因。
3 回复 wcat 2011-11-11 00:00
meistersinger: WWW II是复苏的真正的原因。
罗斯福当时为此大兴土木工程,许多路和桥梁都是那个时候造的。这对复苏大有帮助,当然完全走出是二战时了。

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