爱因斯坦相信神吗?

作者:白露为霜  于 2014-8-17 22:14 发表于 最热闹的华人社交网络--贝壳村

作者分类:百味人生|通用分类:留学生活|已有58评论

关键词:爱因斯坦, 宗教, 科学

科学离开了宗教就象是瘸腿的,宗教没有科学则是瞎眼的。”(Science without religion is lame, religion without science is blind.) - 爱因斯坦。

最早听到这句名言是很多年前。有次牧师讲道时指出很多科学家是信神的,他特别举出爱因斯坦的例子。我当时有点半信半疑,这真是爱因斯坦说的吗?后半句比较容易理解,可前半句他为啥说“科学离开了宗教就象是瘸腿的”呢,难道不信教就不能成为好的科学家吗?

其实搞清这个问题并不困难,只是我当时并没有放在心上。很多年后有次在普林斯顿的拿骚大道上散步,不经意间走进了一家叫Labyrinth的书店。在楼下卖旧书的地方,寻寻觅觅,最后引起注意的是一本不起眼的小书 – 爱因斯坦的《想法和意见》(Ideas and Opinions)。这本书收集了爱因斯坦从物理学家生涯的早期到1955年去世之间的几十篇文章,讲演和书信。内容非常广泛,从相对论,核战争,世界和平,人权,教育,一直到宗教和科学,林林种种。如果你想了解爱因斯坦的世界观或者想知道他为什么这样受人爱戴,可以从这本书开始。

爱因斯坦以创立“相对论”而闻名于世,但他同时又是位伟大的思想家,现代的哲人。他对许多问题的思考深刻而独到。爱因斯坦的写作并不像畅销书那样可以一气从头看到尾,但好处是每篇都不是很长。我可以花5分钟到20分钟读一篇,停下来做些别的事情。这样也有时间回味他说了点啥。我发现这是读此类书的最好方法。读到36页,赫然看见爱因斯坦有关宗教和科学的关系的四篇文章。踏破铁鞋无觅处,得来全不非功夫。

现代人喜欢乱帖标签,比如某某是左派,谁谁是右派;这位是信神的,那位是无神论者,等等,但现实世界要比这样过度简单化的分类要精微复杂的多。在完全的无神论和“圣经句句是真理”之间有很大的灰色空间,爱因斯坦就是这样一位复杂的人。这也是为什么宗教人士和无神论者都引用爱因斯坦来证明自己的观点。

如果你是信神的人,好消息是爱因斯坦也相信“神”,坏消息是爱因斯坦相信的神同你相信的神并不一样。爱因斯坦并不是传统意义上的宗教人士,他不相信人格化的神 – 那种听人祷告,会奖赏或惩罚人的神。他也不认为人死后有天堂。另一个角度来讲,爱因斯坦又是非常属灵的人。他在宇宙的宏大有序中看到了神的存在,并将一生的精力投入在试图理解神的精微设计上。为此,爱因斯坦被封上好几种标签:不可知论者(agnostic),自然神论者(deism),泛神论者(pantheistic),等等。我觉得爱因斯坦就是爱因斯坦,没有一个标签是完全合适的。

当然理解爱因斯坦的最好方法不是听任何人的二手解读,或者浅尝辄止于他的只言片语,最好的方法是阅读爱因斯坦的原著。爱因斯坦到底信神吗?他为什么说“科学没有宗教就象瘸腿的”呢,以下一篇1930年11月9日发表于纽约时报杂志题为“宗教与科学”的文章可能给出了最好的回答。

爱因斯坦在文章中阐述了宗教发展的历史,并预言一个崭新的宗教阶段的降临。他还试图调和宗教与科学的矛盾。爱因斯坦成功地做到这点吗?不得而知。他当然有不少赞同者,但有些科学家对他的没有宗教情怀就搞不了科学的说法提出批评。我并不怀疑爱因斯坦是真正感受到他所说的“宇宙宗教情感”,这也是他科学研究的原动力。当然并不是所有科学家,尤其是现代科学家,都是像他这样的。比如当代最伟大的物理学家,霍金,就非常著名地宣称:创造宇宙并不需要上帝(God was not necessary to create the universe)

 

 

 

宗教与科学

发表于纽约时报杂志(New York Times Magazine)

(翻译:白露为霜)

人类所做的和所想的一切都源于满足切身的需求和舒解自己的痛苦。如果人们想理解属灵运动及其发展,他必须时刻牢记这点。感受和渴望是所有人类努力和人类创造背后的动力,不管后者以何种崇高的幌子展示给我们。什么样的感受和需求使人产生最广泛意义上的宗教思想和信仰呢?思考一下就足以告诉我们,非常不同的情感导致了宗教思想和经验的诞生。让原始人产生宗教观念的首先是“恐惧”–害怕饥饿,猛兽,疾病,死亡。因为人在这个阶段对因果关系的认识通常还不发达,人的脑子里产生出与自身相似的虚幻的神灵来:他们的愿望和行动导致了这些令人恐惧的事情。因此,人们试图通过行动和根据一代代流传下来的传统进行献祭来确保这些神灵的青睐,劝说他们对凡人好一点。在这个意义上,我把它称为是“恐惧的宗教”(religion of fear)。这种宗教,虽然不是祭司们创造的,但在某种程度上被这个特殊阶层稳定下来。他们将自己打扮成众人和他们所害怕的神灵之间的调停人,并在此基础上架设一个霸权。世俗领袖或统治者或特权阶级,其地位依赖于其他因素,经常将世俗权力与祭司阶层相结合以使后者更加稳固,或者政治统治者和祭司阶层在其自我利益中寻求共同点。

社会冲(social impulses)是宗教的结晶的另一个来源。父母亲或人类社区的领袖是凡人因而难免犯错。希望得到指引,爱护和支持的愿望使人形成了神的社会或道德观念。这是天意之神(God of Providence),他保护,处置,奖励和惩罚。这个神,取决于信徒的视野,热爱和珍惜部落的生命,人类的生命,甚至个体的生命。安慰悲伤和未能满足的渴望,他保存了死者的灵魂。这是神的社会或道德的观念。

犹太经文令人赞美地展示了从恐惧的宗教到道德的宗教之发展,这个过程一直持续到新约圣经。一切文明民族的宗教,尤其是东方人的宗教,主要是道德的宗教。从恐惧的宗教到道德的宗教的发展是人类生活的一大进步。然而,认为原始宗教是完全基于恐惧而文明民族的宗教纯粹基于道德的看法是一种我们必须警惕的偏见。事实是,所有宗教都是这两种类型的不同的混合体,其差别是:在较高水平的社会生活中道德的宗教占主导地位。

所有这些类型的共同点是他们的上帝的观念都是拟人(anthropomorphic character)的角色。一般情况下,只有具有特殊禀赋的个体,以及极其高尚的社团,才能上升到高于这个级别的程度。但有一个属于所有这些宗教体验的第三个阶段,尽管它的纯粹的形式很少被发现:我将它称为宇宙宗教感情(cosmic religious feeling)。对于完全没有这种感觉的人来说这很难阐明,特别是因为它没有人格化的上帝的概念。

有些人感觉到人类的欲望和目标的徒劳以及自然和思想世界所透露出来的崇高和奇妙的秩序。个体的存在给他一种被囚禁的感觉,他想把宇宙作为一个显著的整体来体验。宇宙宗教感情的萌芽已经处在早期的发展阶段,例如,在许多大卫的诗篇(Psalms of David)以及先知书(Prophets)里的一部分。佛教,我们特别从叔本华的精彩著作中了解到,包含了更加浓重的这一元素。

这种没有教条,没有人型的神,也没有教堂,以及在它之上建立的中心教义的宗教的感觉是各个时代的宗教天才与众不同的地方。因此,恰恰是在历代的异端邪说者中我们发现了充满了这种最高的宗教感情的人。在许多情况下,他们被同代人视为无神论者,有时也被视为为圣人。从这个角度来看,德谟克利特(Democritus),阿西西的弗朗西斯(Francis of Assisi),和斯宾诺莎(Spinoza)其实很相似。

假如它没有明确的上帝概念,没有神学理论,宇宙宗教感情又如何能从一个人传递到另一个人呢?在我看来,艺术和科学的最重要的功能就是唤醒这种感觉,并使之在那些能感受到它的人们中存活下来。

这样,我们便得出了与通常很不相同的科学和宗教的关系的概念。当人从历史上来看待这一关系,由于很明显的原因,他很容易得出科学与宗教是不可调和的死敌。完全相信因果定律(law of causation)的普遍适应性的人是不可能理会神灵在事件过程中加以干涉的想法 - 当然前提是他非常严肃地看待因果关系的假设。他不需要恐惧的宗教,同样也不需要社会或道德的宗教。奖励和惩罚的神对他来说是不可想象的。原因很简单,一个人的行为是由外部和内部的需求决定的,所以,在神的眼中,就像一个没有生命的物体不能对它的运动负责一样,人也不能为他的行为更多地负责。科学也因此被指控破坏了道德,但这个指责是不公平的。一个人的道德行为,应基于同情,教育,以及社会关系与需求。宗教的基础不应是前提。人如果靠着对惩罚的恐惧和对死后的奖赏的希望来约束那实在是太差劲了。

所以很容易看出为什么教会一直在同科学斗争并迫害献身科学的人。另一方面,我认为宇宙宗教感情是科学研究最有力最高尚的动机。只有那些付出了巨大的努力和奉献,没有它理论科学的先驱工作无法实现的人,才能够把握这种情感的强度。唯有这样的工作,虽然同直接的现实生活很遥远,才能产生这种情感。这是对宇宙的合理性多么坚定的信念和对了解[真理]多么强烈的渴望,它难道不是心灵的微弱反映透露在这个世界上吗,正是它使得开普勒和牛顿能经过多年孤独的劳动解开的天体力学的原则!那些对科学研究的了解主要来自其实用的结果对人的心态很容易得出完全虚假的印象,被持怀疑态度的世界所包围,通向志趣相投的道路散落在广阔的世界和不同的世纪。只有那些为了相似的目的献出了自己的生命的人能有一个生动的理解是什么激发了这些人,尽管有无数次的失败,给予他们力量使之忠于自己的理想。是宇宙宗教感情给人这样的力量。一位同代人曾经说过,我以为没有不妥,在我们这个物欲横流的时代,严肃的科学工作者是唯一的深刻的宗教人士(profoundly religious people)。



 

爱因斯坦在普林斯顿

 


 

Religion and Science

Albert Einstein

The following article by Albert Einstein appeared in the New York Times Magazine on November 9, 1930 pp 1-4. It has been reprinted in Ideas and Opinions, Crown Publishers, Inc. 1954


Everything that the human race has done and thought is concerned with the satisfaction of deeply felt needs and the assuagement of pain. One has to keep this constantly in mind if one wishes to understand spiritual movements and their development. Feeling and longing are the motive force behind all human endeavor and human creation, in however exalted a guise the latter may present themselves to us. Now what are the feelings and needs that have led men to religious thought and belief in the widest sense of the words? A little consideration will suffice to show us that the most varying emotions preside over the birth of religious thought and experience. With primitive man it is above all fear that evokes religious notions - fear of hunger, wild beasts, sickness, death. Since at this stage of existence understanding of causal connections is usually poorly developed, the human mind creates illusory beings more or less analogous to itself on whose wills and actions these fearful happenings depend. Thus one tries to secure the favor of these beings by carrying out actions and offering sacrifices which, according to the tradition handed down from generation to generation, propitiate them or make them well disposed toward a mortal. In this sense I am speaking of a religion of fear. This, though not created, is in an important degree stabilized by the formation of a special priestly caste which sets itself up as a mediator between the people and the beings they fear, and erects a hegemony on this basis. In many cases a leader or ruler or a privileged class whose position rests on other factors combines priestly functions with its secular authority in order to make the latter more secure; or the political rulers and the priestly caste make common cause in their own interests.

The social impulses are another source of the crystallization of religion. Fathers and mothers and the leaders of larger human communities are mortal and fallible. The desire for guidance, love, and support prompts men to form the social or moral conception of God. This is the God of Providence, who protects, disposes, rewards, and punishes; the God who, according to the limits of the believer's outlook, loves and cherishes the life of the tribe or of the human race, or even or life itself; the comforter in sorrow and unsatisfied longing; he who preserves the souls of the dead. This is the social or moral conception of God.

The Jewish scriptures admirably illustrate the development from the religion of fear to moral religion, a development continued in the New Testament. The religions of all civilized peoples, especially the peoples of the Orient, are primarily moral religions. The development from a religion of fear to moral religion is a great step in peoples' lives. And yet, that primitive religions are based entirely on fear and the religions of civilized peoples purely on morality is a prejudice against which we must be on our guard. The truth is that all religions are a varying blend of both types, with this differentiation: that on the higher levels of social life the religion of morality predominates.

Common to all these types is the anthropomorphic character of their conception of God. In general, only individuals of exceptional endowments, and exceptionally high-minded communities, rise to any considerable extent above this level. But there is a third stage of religious experience which belongs to all of them, even though it is rarely found in a pure form: I shall call it cosmic religious feeling. It is very difficult to elucidate this feeling to anyone who is entirely without it, especially as there is no anthropomorphic conception of God corresponding to it.

The individual feels the futility of human desires and aims and the sublimity and marvelous order which reveal themselves both in nature and in the world of thought. Individual existence impresses him as a sort of prison and he wants to experience the universe as a single significant whole. The beginnings of cosmic religious feeling already appear at an early stage of development, e.g., in many of the Psalms of David and in some of the Prophets. Buddhism, as we have learned especially from the wonderful writings of Schopenhauer, contains a much stronger element of this.

The religious geniuses of all ages have been distinguished by this kind of religious feeling, which knows no dogma and no God conceived in man's image; so that there can be no church whose central teachings are based on it. Hence it is precisely among the heretics of every age that we find men who were filled with this highest kind of religious feeling and were in many cases regarded by their contemporaries as atheists, sometimes also as saints. Looked at in this light, men like Democritus, Francis of Assisi, and Spinoza are closely akin to one another.

How can cosmic religious feeling be communicated from one person to another, if it can give rise to no definite notion of a God and no theology? In my view, it is the most important function of art and science to awaken this feeling and keep it alive in those who are receptive to it.

We thus arrive at a conception of the relation of science to religion very different from the usual one. When one views the matter historically, one is inclined to look upon science and religion as irreconcilable antagonists, and for a very obvious reason. The man who is thoroughly convinced of the universal operation of the law of causation cannot for a moment entertain the idea of a being who interferes in the course of events - provided, of course, that he takes the hypothesis of causality really seriously. He has no use for the religion of fear and equally little for social or moral religion. A God who rewards and punishes is inconceivable to him for the simple reason that a man's actions are determined by necessity, external and internal, so that in God's eyes he cannot be responsible, any more than an inanimate object is responsible for the motions it undergoes. Science has therefore been charged with undermining morality, but the charge is unjust. A man's ethical behavior should be based effectually on sympathy, education, and social ties and needs; no religious basis is necessary. Man would indeed be in a poor way if he had to be restrained by fear of punishment and hopes of reward after death.

It is therefore easy to see why the churches have always fought science and persecuted its devotees. On the other hand, I maintain that the cosmic religious feeling is the strongest and noblest motive for scientific research. Only those who realize the immense efforts and, above all, the devotion without which pioneer work in theoretical science cannot be achieved are able to grasp the strength of the emotion out of which alone such work, remote as it is from the immediate realities of life, can issue. What a deep conviction of the rationality of the universe and what a yearning to understand, were it but a feeble reflection of the mind revealed in this world, Kepler and Newton must have had to enable them to spend years of solitary labor in disentangling the principles of celestial mechanics! Those whose acquaintance with scientific research is derived chiefly from its practical results easily develop a completely false notion of the mentality of the men who, surrounded by a skeptical world, have shown the way to kindred spirits scattered wide through the world and through the centuries. Only one who has devoted his life to similar ends can have a vivid realization of what has inspired these men and given them the strength to remain true to their purpose in spite of countless failures. It is cosmic religious feeling that gives a man such strength. A contemporary has said, not unjustly, that in this materialistic age of ours the serious scientific workers are the only profoundly religious people.



爱因斯坦宗教和科学方面的相关阅读:

http://einsteinandreligion.com/

 


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发表评论 评论 (58 个评论)

2 回复 fanlaifuqu 2014-8-17 22:18
谢谢白露。
2 回复 正义感 2014-8-17 22:23
每篇都是精细之作。
2 回复 ChineseInvest88 2014-8-17 22:25
fanlaifuqu: 谢谢白露。
有点深哈。
2 回复 越湖 2014-8-17 22:26
最后一段说得非常好。
“Only one who has devoted his life to similar ends can have a vivid realization of what has inspired these men and given them the strength to remain true to their purpose in spite of countless failures. It is cosmic religious feeling that gives a man such strength. A contemporary has said, not unjustly, that in this materialistic age of ours the serious scientific workers are the only profoundly religious people.“
引用您的翻译:
“只有那些为了相似的目的献出了自己的生命的人能有一个生动的理解是什么激发了这些人,尽管有无数次的失败,给予他们力量使之忠于自己的理想。是宇宙宗教感情给人这样的力量。一位同代人曾经说过,我以为没有不妥,在我们这个物欲横流的时代,严肃的科学工作者是唯一的深刻的宗教人士“
3 回复 fanlaifuqu 2014-8-17 22:33
自诩无神论者,与生长在共党的环境里太久有点关系,但不全是。但自明相对的卑微,低下与无知,不敢全然否定神的存在。
3 回复 前兆 2014-8-17 23:16
当代科学解释不了的,只能推给“神”。所以,“科学离开了宗教就象是瘸腿的,......”,“上帝等于我不知”,......
5 回复 徐福男儿 2014-8-17 23:23
折服于你的读书习惯和广博的浏览。
3 回复 徐福男儿 2014-8-17 23:28
在人格神与宇宙中神的精微存在两者之间,佛教与中国的儒家的认知都属于后者。道家也属于后者,到了道教才发展出前者的认知来,那明显是为了忽悠农夫炊妇的了。
1 回复 总裁判 2014-8-17 23:54
“我觉得爱因斯坦就是爱因斯坦,没有一个标签是完全合适的。”
这是对爱因斯坦信仰问题的、论述到位的评价。
3 回复 trunkzhao 2014-8-18 00:05
这篇很值得收藏。
1 回复 白露为霜 2014-8-18 00:31
fanlaifuqu: 谢谢白露。
上茶,上香茶!
1 回复 白露为霜 2014-8-18 00:31
正义感: 每篇都是精细之作。
谢谢来访。
3 回复 白露为霜 2014-8-18 00:32
ChineseInvest88: 有点深哈。
不会吧?
1 回复 白露为霜 2014-8-18 00:33
越湖: 最后一段说得非常好。
“Only one who has devoted his life to similar ends can have a vivid realization of what has inspired these men and given them th
谢谢留言。爱因斯坦的感受相当独特,也许不是所有科学家都会同意。
6 回复 方方头 2014-8-18 00:33
此篇甚好,谢谢白露介绍。佩服你的翻译。
3 回复 白露为霜 2014-8-18 00:34
fanlaifuqu: 自诩无神论者,与生长在共党的环境里太久有点关系,但不全是。但自明相对的卑微,低下与无知,不敢全然否定神的存在。
那就是介于无神论者和不可知论者之间。
帽子横飞哈~
2 回复 白露为霜 2014-8-18 00:36
前兆: 当代科学解释不了的,只能推给“神”。所以,“科学离开了宗教就象是瘸腿的,......”,“上帝等于我不知”,......
一般人这样认为也不奇怪。但科学理解的范围越来越大,宗教只能退缩人类未知的边缘,这样的日子是很难过的。
2 回复 白露为霜 2014-8-18 00:37
徐福男儿: 折服于你的读书习惯和广博的浏览。
谢谢美言。
3 回复 白露为霜 2014-8-18 00:39
徐福男儿: 在人格神与宇宙中神的精微存在两者之间,佛教与中国的儒家的认知都属于后者。道家也属于后者,到了道教才发展出前者的认知来,那明显是为了忽悠农夫炊妇的了。
儒家也许不能称为完整的宗教。佛教,印度教有宇宙神的概念,但也有人格化神在里面,信徒到庙里拜菩萨或其他神,求福等。
2 回复 白露为霜 2014-8-18 00:39
总裁判: “我觉得爱因斯坦就是爱因斯坦,没有一个标签是完全合适的。”
这是对爱因斯坦信仰问题的、论述到位的评价。
谢谢老总。
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