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劉龍珠律師特別提醒:不是假新聞!美國海關有權檢查手機

作者:劉龍珠律師  于 2016-3-3 11:00 发表于 最热闹的华人社交网络--贝壳村

通用分类:法律相关|已有2评论

关键词:劉龍珠, 海關, 遣返, 檢查手機

劉龍珠律師特別提醒:不是假新聞!美國海關有權檢查手機

/劉龍珠律師

微信号:lawyerlongliu9

 一、近日,微信圈盛传以下两个故事:

1、一名中国留学生在入境加拿大时,被海关查出手机微信中存有“疑似未成人淫秽视频”,随即被遣返回中国。据悉,这名被遣留学生在温哥华当地就读已有15个月,这一次,当Mike(化名)再次进入温哥华机场准备入境时,却被CBSA(加拿大边境服务局)叫进了小黑屋,理由就是,在Mike手机微信群聊中发现了疑似未成年人淫秽视频。虽然加拿大警方最后认定未构成犯罪,但CBSA人员还是坚持撤销Mike的签证,并且在温哥华机场直接遣返他回中国了!

2、二月中旬,中国留学生S请假半个月回国,26号返美从洛杉矶入境时出了问题,先是被质疑离境理由,后又被质疑学校不正规有移民倾向,然后在“小黑屋”裡被老美海关盘查手机,最终,在被盘问三个多小时后,因为大半年前在微信聊天中,向朋友透露“我不喜欢这个学校,只是临时挂一下身份”,立即被遣返回中国。更让这位S同学鬱闷的是,在被遣返的飞机上,S查看自己的手机,想找到那段“害了”她的聊天纪录,但却怎麽都找不到。 S心生疑惑,这段半年多以前聊天记录似​​乎早就被她删了,但海关竟然还能找出来,让她感到不寒而栗。

 二、刘龙珠律师观点:上述事情完全可能发生,而且概率极大

消息传播之后,很多对美国并未深入瞭解的华人新移民,发帖表示“不相信这是真的”,认为是假新闻。有人甚至认为:海关检查手机是侵犯人权、窥探个人隐私。

对此,华裔律师刘龙珠提醒大家:美国海关的权利很大,完全有权利检查入关乘客的私人物品,包括手机和笔记本电脑。不管这个乘客是什麽样的移民身份(公民、绿卡、国际学生、观光客),海关都可以检查。

 三、入关检查与海关的权力

刘龙珠律师2015年接受主流媒体採访时,曾将海关的权力和入关检查事项归纳如下:

1、游客到达美国口岸时,要接受海关检查。

儘管按照美国法律,执法机构以人种、国籍、信仰、性别、族裔为理由实施拦截、检查或拘留是违法的。但是,海关有特别的权力,可以基于游客的国籍、旅行计划在边境口岸实施拦截和检查。

通常说来,警察在大街上搜查一个嫌犯,需要有“合理依据”(Probable Cause)才能执法。但美国最高法院(The Supreme Court)曾下令,在边境口岸的执法机构可以不需任何理由就可以搜查(桉例法United States v. Ramsey, 431 U.S. 606 (1977).)。因此,海关在机场检查旅客的私人物品,不需要理由,也无需搜查令。

2、最高法院进一步裁决:个人在边境口岸的隐私权利,低于其在美国国境之内。而且,在边境口岸这个特殊地点,美国宪法第四修正桉中关于个人隐私权与政府利益之间的权衡,在此要向政府方面倾斜。换言之:在边境口岸,个人不受美国宪法第四修正桉的保护,政府完全佔据主导地位(桉例法Almeida-Sanchez v. United States, 413 U.S. 266 (1973).)。

3、一般情况下,绝大多数旅客的入关程序仅仅只需几分钟。但有些时候,为了保证安全,海关会对部份旅客採用“二次审查”程序(Secondary Screening)。在这个程序中,海关有可能会与其它政府机构协作调查,时间会比较长。

4、在“二次审查”程序中,美国公民有权利请律师。非美国公民(绿卡、游客、国际学生等)是没有权利就移民身份和入境相关问题请律师的。当然,面对海关的问话,非美国公民可以询问:是否能够暂时保持沉默,待谘询律师之后再回答。海关有可能批准,当然也有可能不批准。

5、非美国公民在边境口岸没有权利请律师的原因是:边境口岸在地理上属于美国领土,但是从法律意义而言还不是美国的国境之内,因此非美国公民不可以享受到只有在美国国境之内才能享受到的权利。

但是美国公民就没有这种限制,美国公民在美国国境之外也可以请律师

 四、海关检查旅客物品(包括手机)以及容易触犯法律的事项

以下部份内容摘抄自刘龙珠律师新书《如何合法赴美生子》(该书即将出版),现提前发布给对此有困惑的朋友们。

 海关可以查手机

美国海关有权力检查入关者的随身物品,包括手机和电脑裡的文档和聊天记录。美国海关有懂中文的官员,可以看懂微信记录。联邦政府扫荡月子中心之后,检查越来越频繁。

美国海关边境保护局(Customs and Border Protection, CBP)官方网站上有这样一段话:

We may also examine your baggage, including electronic equipment, or your car, which we have the legal authority to do.

我们可能会检查您的包裹,包括电子设备,或您的车辆,我们有法律赋予的权力做这样的检查。 

 

 

游客必须配合海关的检查,不配合也不行。如果拒绝检查,将大大加重海关的怀疑,除了被遣返之外,还很有可能会被採取强制检查措施。就好比拒捕不但没用,反而罪上加罪。

也不要自作聪明的推说手机和电脑的开机密码忘记了,或借口电脑、手机裡有夫妻之间的隐私照片不能让海关看,那样也会增加被遣返的可能性。

就让“海天盛宴”留在美好的回忆裡吧,除非你实在想与美国的海关官员分享。

另外,美国法律对涉及未成年人(18岁以下)的色情资料惩罚力度非常严厉。联邦法律规定:

● 对于以商业手段故意接受、运输、传播、出售或准备出售涉及未成年人的色情资料的,初犯者将被罚款并处以5年以上20年以下的监禁,累犯者罚款并处以15年以上40年以下的监禁。

● 对于持有或有意观看涉及未成年人的色情资料的,将被罚款并处以最高10年的监禁。其中涉及12岁以下幼儿色情资料的,处以最高20年的监禁。

由此可见,即使是“持有”相关的色情资料都是有罪的!所以这裡要特别提醒那些有这种精力旺盛的中国青年们:把你们手机、电脑、iPad裡面的岛国女优统统删掉吧。本来亚洲人相对美国人而言就看上去显小,30岁的长得像15岁,这样就很容易让美国海关官员认定你涉嫌“持有、观看儿童色情资料”。

以下是美国联邦法律在这方面的原文:

18 U.S. Code § 2252 –

Certain activities relating to material involving the sexual exploitation of minors

 (a) Any person who—

(1) knowingly transports or ships using any means or facility of interstate or foreign commerce or in or affecting interstate or foreign commerce by any means including by computer or mails, any visual depiction, if—

(A) the producing of such visual depiction involves the use of a minor engaging in sexually explicit conduct; and

(B) such visual depiction is of such conduct;

(2) knowingly receives, or distributes, any visual depiction using any means or facility of interstate or foreign commerce or that has been mailed, or has been shipped or transported in or affecting interstate or foreign commerce, or which contains materials which have been mailed or so shipped or transported, by any means including by computer, or knowingly reproduces any visual depiction for distribution using any means or facility of interstate or foreign commerce or in or affecting interstate or foreign commerce or through the mails, if—

(A) the producing of such visual depiction involves the use of a minor engaging in sexually explicit conduct; and

(B) such visual depiction is of such conduct;

(3) either—

(A) in the special maritime and territorial jurisdiction of the United States, or on any land or building owned by, leased to, or otherwise used by or under the control of the Government of the United States, or in the Indian country as defined in section 1151 of this title, knowingly sells or possesses with intent to sell any visual depiction; or

(B) knowingly sells or possesses with intent to sell any visual depiction that has been mailed, shipped, or transported using any means or facility of interstate or foreign commerce, or has been shipped or transported in or affecting interstate or foreign commerce, or which was produced using materials which have been mailed or so shipped or transported using any means or facility of interstate or foreign commerce, including by computer, if—

(i) the producing of such visual depiction involves the use of a minor engaging in sexually explicit conduct; and

(ii) such visual depiction is of such conduct; or

(4) either—(A) in the special maritime and territorial jurisdiction of the United States, or on any land or building owned by, leased to, or otherwise used by or under the control of the Government of the United States, or in the Indian country as defined in section 1151 of this title, knowingly possesses, or knowingly accesses with intent to view, 1 or more books, magazines, periodicals, films, video tapes, or other matter which contain any visual depiction; or

(B) knowingly possesses, or knowingly accesses with intent to view, 1 or more books, magazines, periodicals, films, video tapes, or other matter which contain any visual depiction that has been mailed, or has been shipped or transported using any means or facility of interstate or foreign commerce or in or affecting interstate or foreign commerce, or which was produced using materials which have been mailed or so shipped or transported, by any means including by computer, if—

(i) the producing of such visual depiction involves the use of a minor engaging in sexually explicit conduct; and

(ii) such visual depiction is of such conduct;

shall be punished as provided in subsection (b) of this section.

(b)

(1) Whoever violates, or attempts or conspires to violate, paragraph (1), (2), or (3) of subsection (a) shall be fined under this title and imprisoned not less than 5 years and not more than 20 years, but if such person has a prior conviction under this chapter, section 1591, chapter 71section 1591, chapter 71, chapter 109A, or chapter 117, or under section 920 of title 10 (article 120 of the Uniform Code of Military Justice), or under the laws of any State relating to aggravated sexual abuse, sexual abuse, or abusive sexual conduct involving a minor or ward, or the production, possession, receipt, mailing, sale, distribution, shipment, or transportation of child pornography, or sex trafficking of children, such person shall be fined under this title and imprisoned for not less than 15 years nor more than 40 years.

(2) Whoever violates, or attempts or conspires to violate, paragraph (4) of subsection (a) shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than 10 years, or both, but if any visual depiction involved in the offense involved a prepubescent minor or a minor who had not attained 12 years of age, such person shall be fined under this title and imprisoned for not more than 20 years, or if such person has a prior conviction under this chapter, chapter 71, chapter 109A, or chapter 117, or under section 920 of title 10 (article 120 of the Uniform Code of Military Justice), or under the laws of any State relating to aggravated sexual abuse, sexual abuse, or abusive sexual conduct involving a minor or ward, or the production, possession, receipt, mailing, sale, distribution, shipment, or transportation of child pornography, such person shall be fined under this title and imprisoned for not less than 10 years nor more than 20 years.

(c) Affirmative Defense.— It shall be an affirmative defense to a charge of violating paragraph (4) of subsection (a) that the defendant—

(1) possessed less than three matters containing any visual depiction proscribed by that paragraph; and

(2) promptly and in good faith, and without retaining or allowing any person, other than a law enforcement agency, to access any visual depiction or copy thereof—

(A) took reasonable steps to destroy each such visual depiction; or

(B) reported the matter to a law enforcement agency and afforded that agency access to each such visual depiction.


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发表评论 评论 (2 个评论)

3 回复 大洋仙生 2016-3-3 19:56
有可能微信早已遭入侵。
3 回复 qxw66 2016-3-4 12:12
我没有手机怎么办

facelist doodle 涂鸦板

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