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刘龙珠律师法律评论:如何在家中合法存放枪支弹药

作者:劉龍珠律師  于 2016-12-9 09:54 发表于 最热闹的华人社交网络--贝壳村

通用分类:法律相关

关键词:storage, firearm

刘龙珠律师法律评论:如何在家中合法存放枪支弹药

今天的文章内容灵感来源于网络上人们对于“在家存放枪支弹药时,弹药是否需要与枪支分开存放在不同的带锁的箱子里”这一问题的讨论。基本上,参与讨论的网友们的一致意见是弹药与枪支需要分开存放,但对于“分开存放”是否意味着要将弹药与枪支分开放在不同的带锁的箱子里、甚至家中不同的位置有异议。

网络上有很多关于在加州购买枪支、运输枪支的指南,但对于如何在家中合法地存放枪支弹药这个问题鲜少有人涉及,其实,加州刑法典还专门对枪支弹药的保存有规定,甚至有一项错误保存枪支罪(criminal storage of a firearm),了解这些法律知识对于枪支使用者或者爱好者都有帮助。

首先,关于在家中存放枪支弹药的问题,加州法律并没有规定枪支与弹药必须要存放在不同的带锁的箱子里,法无禁止即自由,也就是说弹药可以与枪支放在同一个枪箱里,只要枪支没有装弹。这里的“装弹”(loaded),大部分情况下是指,弹药在枪支的枪膛里、弹药盒里,或者夹在枪支上等等。(法律原文见文末CA Penal Code 16840

虽然大家可能觉得在家里怎么存放枪支弹药纯属个人自由,但是当家里来了小孩子或者有法律禁止持枪的人,就要对于存放枪支的问题更加小心,因为加州刑法典第25100款至第25135款规定了一项错误保存枪支罪,如果不谨慎对待存放枪支的问题,就可能触犯刑法。

错误保存枪支罪按照其严重程度可分为三个等级:(法律原文见文末CA Penal Code 2510025110

一级错误保存枪支罪的构成要件是:(1)将装弹的枪支放在任何处于个人管控的地方,例如家里;(2)明知或者应当知道未成年人(未经其家长或者监护人同意)或者被法律禁止持枪的人有可能接触到枪支;(3)未成年人或者被法律禁止持枪的人接触到了枪支并且给自己或者他人造成了重伤甚至死亡。违反这项罪名可被判处16个月或者两至三年的监禁,或者1000美元以内的罚金,或者两者并罚;或者被判处在郡监狱中服刑一年以内,或者1000美元以内的罚金,或者两者并罚。

二级错误保存枪支罪的构成要件与一级大致相同,除了第三点对于损害结果的规定改为了未成年人或者被法律禁止持枪的人接触到了枪支并且给自己或者他人造成了轻伤,或者将枪支带到了公共场所。违反这项罪名可被判处在郡监狱中服刑一年以内,或者1000美元以内的罚金,或者两者并罚。

三级错误保存枪支罪的构成要件更为简单,只要求(1)将装弹的枪支放在任何处于个人管控的地方;(2)明知或者应当知道未成年人(未经其家长或者监护人同意)或者被法律禁止持枪的人有可能接触到枪支;(3)没有采取合理的保存枪支的措施。这项罪名并不要求造成任何人身伤害或者公共妨害。但这里可以对“将装弹的枪支放在未成年人或者被法律禁止持枪的人有可能接触到枪支的地方”这个部分作一个引申解释,即法律并没有规定“将已装弹的枪支放在未成年人接触不到的地方”或者“将未装弹的枪支放在未成年人接触得到的地方”这两种情形,所以法律上应该是允许的。刑罚上,三级错误保存枪支罪作轻罪处理,法律并没有具体规定应当如何施加刑罚。对于何为“合理的保存枪支的措施”,这一点法律上并没有定义,需要依据实际情况来定。譬如对于两三岁的孩子来说,很可能还不知道如何装弹、如何组装枪支,那么按常理来说,即使将弹药与未装弹的枪支放在同一个箱子里,也是合理的、足够安全的。但是对于十七岁的孩子来说,很可能知道枪支的位置,也知道如何装弹,那么很可能就需要将弹药分开放在不同的箱子里并上锁。

根据加州检察长办公室的法律意见,枪支与弹药应该分开存放,并且应该使用加州枪支法核定的安全锁,例如扳机锁 (trigger lock)或者电缆锁 (cable lock) 在不装弹药的情况下存放入带锁的容器中,例如加州法律核定的带锁的箱子或者枪支保险柜。枪支与弹药应该被放在不同的位置。为安全起见,枪支所有者应该同时使用安全锁以及带锁的安全容器。(原文见”The Six Basic Gun Safety Rules”, Firearm Safety, State of California - Department of Justice – Kamala D. Harris Attorney General

根据常理,如果在家中要实现及时自卫,那么可能连装弹的时间都没有,比较合理的做法就是保持枪支为装弹状态,但是要采取足够安全的保存措施,比如采取扳机锁(trigger lock)与枪箱的双重保险。

最常见的安全锁是扳机锁(trigger lock)和电缆锁(cable lock)。从下图(图片来自Amazon)可以看出,trigger lock对于锁住枪支的扳机这一功能做出了特殊的设计。

而从下图的cable lock(图片来自Amazon)来看,枪支用的cable lock与一般的电缆锁没有太大区别。

总之,将弹药与未装弹的枪支放在同一个带锁的箱子里并不触犯加州的法律规定,但是,为了防止发生未成年人接触枪支并造成误伤这样的事故,也为了防止因为枪支保存不当而给自己带来刑事指控,应当采取合理的保存枪支的措施,这个“合理”的程度取决于实际情况。

 

法律原文:

CA Penal Code

 

16840

 

(a) As used in Section 25800, a firearm shall be deemed to be “loaded” whenever both the firearm and the unexpended ammunition capable of being discharged from the firearm are in the immediate possession of the same person.

(b) As used in Chapter 2 (commencing with Section 25100) of Division 4 of Title 4, in subparagraph (A) of paragraph (6) of subdivision (c) of Section 25400, and in Sections 25850 to 26055, inclusive,

(1) A firearm shall be deemed to be “loaded” when there is an unexpended cartridge or shell, consisting of a case that holds a charge of powder and a bullet or shot, in, or attached in any manner to, the firearm, including, but not limited to, in the firing chamber, magazine, or clip thereof attached to the firearm.

(2) Notwithstanding paragraph (1), a muzzle-loader firearm shall be deemed to be loaded when it is capped or primed and has a powder charge and ball or shot in the barrel or cylinder.

(Added by Stats. 2010, Ch. 711, Sec. 6. Effective January 1, 2011. Operative January 1, 2012, by Sec. 10 of Ch. 711.)

25100

 

(a) Except as provided in Section 25105, a person commits the crime of “criminal storage of a firearm in the first degree” if all of the following conditions are satisfied:

(1) The person keeps any loaded firearm within any premises that are under the person’s custody or control.

(2) The person knows or reasonably should know that a child is likely to gain access to the firearm without the permission of the child’s parent or legal guardian, or that a person prohibited from possessing a firearm or deadly weapon pursuant to state or federal law is likely to gain access to the firearm.

(3) The child obtains access to the firearm and thereby causes death or great bodily injury to the child or any other person, or the person prohibited from possessing a firearm or deadly weapon pursuant to state or federal law obtains access to the firearm and thereby causes death or great bodily injury to himself or herself or any other person.

(b) Except as provided in Section 25105, a person commits the crime of “criminal storage of a firearm in the second degree” if all of the following conditions are satisfied:

(1) The person keeps any loaded firearm within any premises that are under the person’s custody or control.

(2) The person knows or reasonably should know that a child is likely to gain access to the firearm without the permission of the child’s parent or legal guardian, or that a person prohibited from possessing a firearm or deadly weapon pursuant to state or federal law is likely to gain access to the firearm.

(3) The child obtains access to the firearm and thereby causes injury, other than great bodily injury, to the child or any other person, or carries the firearm either to a public place or in violation of Section 417, or the person prohibited from possessing a firearm or deadly weapon pursuant to state or federal law obtains access to the firearm and thereby causes injury, other than great bodily injury, to himself or herself or any other person, or carries the firearm either to a public place or in violation of Section 417.

(c) Except as provided in Section 25105, a person commits the crime of “criminal storage of a firearm in the third degree” if the person keeps any loaded firearm within any premises that are under the person’s custody or control and negligently stores or leaves a loaded firearm in a location where the person knows, or reasonably should know, that a child is likely to gain access to the firearm without the permission of the child’s parent or legal guardian, unless reasonable action is taken by the person to secure the firearm against access by the child.

(Amended by Stats. 2013, Ch. 758, Sec. 1.5. Effective January 1, 2014.)

 

25110

  

(a) Criminal storage of a firearm in the first degree is punishable by imprisonment pursuant to subdivision (h) of Section 1170 for 16 months, or two or three years, by a fine not exceeding ten thousand dollars ($10,000), or by both that imprisonment and fine; or by imprisonment in a county jail not exceeding one year, by a fine not exceeding one thousand dollars ($1,000), or by both that imprisonment and fine.

(b) Criminal storage of a firearm in the second degree is punishable by imprisonment in a county jail not exceeding one year, by a fine not exceeding one thousand dollars ($1,000), or by both that imprisonment and fine.

(c) Criminal storage of a firearm in the third degree is punishable as a misdemeanor.

(Amended by Stats. 2013, Ch. 730, Sec. 2. Effective January 1, 2014.)


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