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刘龙珠律师法律评论:分手后散布前女友裸照违法吗?

作者:劉龍珠律師  于 2016-12-22 10:22 发表于 最热闹的华人社交网络--贝壳村

通用分类:法律相关

刘龙珠律师法律评论:分手后散布前女友裸照违法吗?

如今网络上信息繁杂,一些别有用心之人也会借机散布不雅信息,比如一对曾经热恋的情侣分手后,男生心中充满愤恨,于是将前女友的裸照发到网上,这种做法会触犯法律吗?直到2013年加州才通过专门规制这种行为的法律,下文刘律师将分析这种行为相关的刑事法律。

一、色情报复 (revenge porn)

来自圣地亚哥的Kevin Christopher Bollaert曾经经营着一个名叫UGotPosted.com的网站,网站用户可以在不经他/她人同意的情况下上传他/她人的不雅照片(即裸照等)以及姓名、住址、Facebook账号等个人信息。这个网站后来就成为了一些对前女友或者前妻心存愤恨的人的分享集中营,他们在不经前女友或者前妻同意的情况下上传了她们的不雅照片以及个人信息。从2012122日到2013917日,有超过1万张不雅照片被上传到此网站。这些照片以及信息被上传后,Kevin就会给受害人发邮件告诉她们最多付350美元就可以将她们的不雅照片从网上删除。

这些不雅照片以及个人信息被上传后,许多女性受害者会莫名接收到来自陌生男性的线上或者线下骚扰,她们活在恐惧、羞辱中,遭受了不可磨灭的创伤。直到20132月,在对Kevin的庭审上,21名受害人指证Kevin的罪行,最终他才被控诉犯下了21起身份盗窃案件 (identity theft) 6起敲诈勒索案件 (extortion) ,被判处18年监禁。

虽然Kevin并没有被定罪为色情报复,但他的案件的确推动了加州2013年色情报复法律的出台。

根据加州刑法典第647 (j) (4)条,色情报复是指行为人为了给他/她人造成精神折磨,故意散布他/她人的不雅照片。这里的散布行为并不一定是要通过网络来进行,也就是说,传阅纸质版不雅照也构成色情报复。这里的不雅照片是指他/她人身体的私密部位的照片或者是他/她人进行性行为时的场景的照片,也就是说,即使行为人散布的不雅照片中有行为人自己,也构成色情报复。

通常,实施色情报复的行为人都是曾经与受害人是情侣或者夫妻,在其伴侣关系存续期间获取了受害人的不雅照片,与受害人分手之后为了羞辱受害人而故意散布受害人的不雅照片。

色情报复在加州属轻罪,初犯可被判最多6个月的监禁,再犯或者在受害人是未成年人的情况下,行为人可被判1年的监禁。

二、儿童色情 (kiddie porn)

前文阐述的是不雅照片散布者和受害人都是成年人的情况,如果任何一方主体是未成年人(即未满18岁),那么就要看看是否触犯加州的儿童色情法律。

在分析不同的儿童色情法律之前,需要明确儿童色情作品的定义。儿童色情作品是指,任何载体形式的描绘着未成年人的性行为的资料。

具体来说,有以下五种情形:

1、加州刑法典第311.1条和第311.2条——制作以及散布儿童色情作品

这两条法律禁止以散布、展示或者交换为目的,发送、运输、制作、持有或者复制任何儿童色情作品。

例如,A将一个9岁女孩进行性行为的场景拍下来并告诉网友愿以100美元一张的价格出卖这些照片。A的行为涉嫌以散布为目的,制作儿童色情作品,更严重的是,A还试图出卖手中的儿童色情作品来盈利,这将加重其罪行。

通常法官在量刑时会考虑以下因素:

(1)      被传播的内容是否是淫秽儿童色情作品;

(2)      行为人是否意图向未成年人散布或者展示淫秽儿童色情作品;

(3)      行为人是否试图从散布淫秽儿童色情作品中盈利(主要指金钱利益)。

视具体情节,行为人可被判不同程度的刑罚。如果犯罪情节不严重,案件性质被定义为轻罪,行为人可被判1年监禁以及1千或者2千美元的罚金;如果犯罪情节严重,案件性质被定义为重罪,行为人可被判16个月~6年的监禁,以及1万或者10万美元的罚金。

2、加州刑法典第311.3条——非法色情利用未成年人

这一法律禁止非法利用未成年人,复制、打印或者交换任何儿童色情作品。这一条罪名并不要求行为人有散布、交换或者展示色情作品的意图(目的)。

例如,B开了一家照相馆,为了增加生意,B在其宣传广告中说本照相馆承接任何照片打印,这吸引了一批儿童色情作品爱好者,他们将自己拍摄的儿童色情照片交给B来冲印。尽管B并不是这些儿童色情照片的制作者,但是他冲印儿童色情照片的行为足以被起诉触犯加州刑法典第311.3条。

初次触犯此法律构成轻罪,行为人可被判处1年监禁和2千美元罚金;再犯或者多次触犯此法律构成重罪,行为人可被判处16个月~3年的监禁,以及1万美元的罚金。

3、加州刑法典第311.4条——雇佣或者利用未成年人来制作儿童色情作品

这一法律禁止在明知参与摄制的有未成年人的情况下,雇佣、利用、劝说或者强迫任何未成年人参与儿童色情作品的摄制。这条罪名的成立并不要求行为人本人来制作儿童色情作品。

例如,C潜入了一高中女更衣室旁边的杂物间,并在杂物间的墙上钻了一个孔,偷偷拍下了女高中生们换衣服的场景。即使这些女高中生并不知道她们被偷拍了,并且C并没有要求这些女高中生参与这些照片的拍摄,C仍然触犯了加州刑法典第311.4条。

依据具体犯罪情节,触犯此法律的行为可被定性为轻罪或者重罪。如果犯罪情节较轻,通常情况下即不以盈利为目的,行为人可被判处1年监禁以及2千美元的罚金;如果犯罪情节较重,即以盈利为目的,或者是不以盈利为目的但强迫或者说服未成年人或其父母参与儿童色情作品的制作,这时行为人可被判处16个月~8年的监禁,以及1万或者5万美元的罚金。

4、加州刑法典第311.10条——宣传儿童色情作品

这条法律禁止在明知淫秽儿童色情作品中有未成年人的情况下,以销售或者散布为目的,宣传淫秽儿童色情作品。

这条罪名主要有两个构成要件:

(1)      以销售或者散布为目的,宣传淫秽资料;

(2)      行为人明知这些淫秽资料中有未成年人进行性行为的场景。

如果犯罪情节较轻,行为人可以按轻罪被判处1年监禁以及1千美元的罚金;如果犯罪情节较重,行为人可以按重罪被判处24年的监禁以及5万美元的罚金。

5、加州刑法典第311.11条——持有儿童色情作品

这条法律禁止持有儿童色情作品。这条罪名有三个构成要件:

1)涉案的儿童色情作品是使用现实生活中的未成年人来制作的;

2)行为人持有儿童色情作品;

3)行为人明知其持有的是儿童色情作品。

但是如果涉案的淫秽作品中并没有使用真实的未成年人,那就不构成持有儿童色情作品罪。例如,D在其电脑硬盘中存有大量日本色情漫画,漫画中有未成年人进行性行为的内容。这里D的行为并不构成持有儿童色情作品罪,因为这些色情漫画并不是用真实的未成年人的形象来制作的。

初次触犯此法律可构成轻罪或者重罪,如果法官将案件定性为轻罪,行为人可被判1年监禁和2,500美元的罚金;如果法官将案件定性为重罪,行为人可被判处16个月~3年的监禁和1万美元的罚金。再犯或者有性犯罪前科将构成重罪,行为人可被判处16个月~6年的监禁和1万美元的罚金。

并且,在加州,性犯罪记录将跟随行为人一辈子,无法抹除。

例外情形

以上五种情形不适用于两类人群:(1)法律上或者经济上独立的未成年人 (emancipated minors);(2)夫妻间的合法性行为,例如一名19岁的丈夫录制与他17岁的妻子之间的性行为视频并不会触犯儿童色情法律。

同时,如果行为人是基于以下两种合法目的,前文列举的种种行为也不会触犯儿童色情法律:(1)执法机关的犯罪调查和犯罪指控活动;(2)合法的医学、科学研究或者教育活动。

 

法律原文:

CA Penal Code

647(j)(4)

(A) Any person who intentionally distributes the image of the intimate body part or parts of another identifiable person, or an image of the person depicted engaged in an act of sexual intercourse, sodomy, oral copulation, sexual penetration, or an image of masturbation by the person depicted or in which the person depicted participates, under circumstances in which the persons agree or understand that the image shall remain private, the person distributing the image knows or should know that distribution of the image will cause serious emotional distress, and the person depicted suffers that distress.

(B) A person intentionally distributes an image described in subparagraph (A) when he or she personally distributes the image, or arranges, specifically requests, or intentionally causes another person to distribute that image.

(C) As used in this paragraph, “intimate body part” means any portion of the genitals, the anus and in the case of a female, also includes any portion of the breasts below the top of the areola, that is either uncovered or clearly visible through clothing.

(D) It shall not be a violation of this paragraph to distribute an image described in subparagraph (A) if any of the following applies:

(i) The distribution is made in the course of reporting an unlawful activity.

(ii) The distribution is made in compliance with a subpoena or other court order for use in a legal proceeding.

(iii) The distribution is made in the course of a lawful public proceeding.

 

311.1.

 

(a) Every person who knowingly sends or causes to be sent, or brings or causes to be brought, into this state for sale or distribution, or in this state possesses, prepares, publishes, produces, develops, duplicates, or prints any representation of information, data, or image, including, but not limited to, any film, filmstrip, photograph, negative, slide, photocopy, videotape, video laser disc, computer hardware, computer software, computer floppy disc, data storage media, CD-ROM, or computer-generated equipment or any other computer-generated image that contains or incorporates in any manner, any film or filmstrip, with intent to distribute or to exhibit to, or to exchange with, others, or who offers to distribute, distributes, or exhibits to, or exchanges with, others, any obscene matter, knowing that the matter depicts a person under the age of 18 years personally engaging in or personally simulating sexual conduct, as defined in Section 311.4, shall be punished either by imprisonment in the county jail for up to one year, by a fine not to exceed one thousand dollars ($1,000), or by both the fine and imprisonment, or by imprisonment in the state prison, by a fine not to exceed ten thousand dollars ($10,000), or by the fine and imprisonment.

(b) This section does not apply to the activities of law enforcement and prosecuting agencies in the investigation and prosecution of criminal offenses or to legitimate medical, scientific, or educational activities, or to lawful conduct between spouses.

(c) This section does not apply to matter which depicts a child under the age of 18, which child is legally emancipated, including lawful conduct between spouses when one or both are under the age of 18.

(d) It does not constitute a violation of this section for a telephone corporation, as defined by Section 234 of the Public Utilities Code, to carry or transmit messages described in this chapter or perform related activities in providing telephone services.

(Amended by Stats. 1996, Ch. 1080, Sec. 2. Effective January 1, 1997.)

311.2.

  

(a) Every person who knowingly sends or causes to be sent, or brings or causes to be brought, into this state for sale or distribution, or in this state possesses, prepares, publishes, produces, or prints, with intent to distribute or to exhibit to others, or who offers to distribute, distributes, or exhibits to others, any obscene matter is for a first offense, guilty of a misdemeanor. If the person has previously been convicted of any violation of this section, the court may, in addition to the punishment authorized in Section 311.9, impose a fine not exceeding fifty thousand dollars ($50,000).

(b) Every person who knowingly sends or causes to be sent, or brings or causes to be brought, into this state for sale or distribution, or in this state possesses, prepares, publishes, produces, develops, duplicates, or prints any representation of information, data, or image, including, but not limited to, any film, filmstrip, photograph, negative, slide, photocopy, videotape, video laser disc, computer hardware, computer software, computer floppy disc, data storage media, CD-ROM, or computer-generated equipment or any other computer-generated image that contains or incorporates in any manner, any film or filmstrip, with intent to distribute or to exhibit to, or to exchange with, others for commercial consideration, or who offers to distribute, distributes, or exhibits to, or exchanges with, others for commercial consideration, any obscene matter, knowing that the matter depicts a person under the age of 18 years personally engaging in or personally simulating sexual conduct, as defined in Section 311.4, is guilty of a felony and shall be punished by imprisonment in the state prison for two, three, or six years, or by a fine not exceeding one hundred thousand dollars ($100,000), in the absence of a finding that the defendant would be incapable of paying that fine, or by both that fine and imprisonment.

(c) Every person who knowingly sends or causes to be sent, or brings or causes to be brought, into this state for sale or distribution, or in this state possesses, prepares, publishes, produces, develops, duplicates, or prints any representation of information, data, or image, including, but not limited to, any film, filmstrip, photograph, negative, slide, photocopy, videotape, video laser disc, computer hardware, computer software, computer floppy disc, data storage media, CD-ROM, or computer-generated equipment or any other computer-generated image that contains or incorporates in any manner, any film or filmstrip, with intent to distribute or exhibit to, or to exchange with, a person 18 years of age or older, or who offers to distribute, distributes, or exhibits to, or exchanges with, a person 18 years of age or older any matter, knowing that the matter depicts a person under the age of 18 years personally engaging in or personally simulating sexual conduct, as defined in Section 311.4, shall be punished by imprisonment in the county jail for up to one year, or by a fine not exceeding two thousand dollars ($2,000), or by both that fine and imprisonment, or by imprisonment in the state prison. It is not necessary to prove commercial consideration or that the matter is obscene in order to establish a violation of this subdivision. If a person has been previously convicted of a violation of this subdivision, he or she is guilty of a felony.

(d) Every person who knowingly sends or causes to be sent, or brings or causes to be brought, into this state for sale or distribution, or in this state possesses, prepares, publishes, produces, develops, duplicates, or prints any representation of information, data, or image, including, but not limited to, any film, filmstrip, photograph, negative, slide, photocopy, videotape, video laser disc, computer hardware, computer software, computer floppy disc, data storage media, CD-ROM, or computer-generated equipment or any other computer-generated image that contains or incorporates in any manner, any film or filmstrip, with intent to distribute or exhibit to, or to exchange with, a person under 18 years of age, or who offers to distribute, distributes, or exhibits to, or exchanges with, a person under 18 years of age any matter, knowing that the matter depicts a person under the age of 18 years personally engaging in or personally simulating sexual conduct, as defined in Section 311.4, is guilty of a felony. It is not necessary to prove commercial consideration or that the matter is obscene in order to establish a violation of this subdivision.

(e) Subdivisions (a) to (d), inclusive, do not apply to the activities of law enforcement and prosecuting agencies in the investigation and prosecution of criminal offenses, to legitimate medical, scientific, or educational activities, or to lawful conduct between spouses.

(f) This section does not apply to matter that depicts a legally emancipated child under the age of 18 years or to lawful conduct between spouses when one or both are under the age of 18 years.

(g) It does not constitute a violation of this section for a telephone corporation, as defined by Section 234 of the Public Utilities Code, to carry or transmit messages described in this chapter or to perform related activities in providing telephone services.

(Amended by Stats. 2006, Ch. 337, Sec. 20. Effective September 20, 2006.)

311.3.

(a) A person is guilty of sexual exploitation of a child if he or she knowingly develops, duplicates, prints, or exchanges any representation of information, data, or image, including, but not limited to, any film, filmstrip, photograph, negative, slide, photocopy, videotape, video laser disc, computer hardware, computer software, computer floppy disc, data storage media, CD-ROM, or computer-generated equipment or any other computer-generated image that contains or incorporates in any manner, any film or filmstrip that depicts a person under the age of 18 years engaged in an act of sexual conduct.

(b) As used in this section, “sexual conduct” means any of the following:

(1) Sexual intercourse, including genital-genital, oral-genital, anal-genital, or oral-anal, whether between persons of the same or opposite sex or between humans and animals.

(2) Penetration of the vagina or rectum by any object.

(3) Masturbation for the purpose of sexual stimulation of the viewer.

(4) Sadomasochistic abuse for the purpose of sexual stimulation of the viewer.

(5) Exhibition of the genitals or the pubic or rectal area of any person for the purpose of sexual stimulation of the viewer.

(6) Defecation or urination for the purpose of sexual stimulation of the viewer.

(c) Subdivision (a) does not apply to the activities of law enforcement and prosecution agencies in the investigation and prosecution of criminal offenses or to legitimate medical, scientific, or educational activities, or to lawful conduct between spouses.

(d) Every person who violates subdivision (a) shall be punished by a fine of not more than two thousand dollars ($2,000) or by imprisonment in a county jail for not more than one year, or by both that fine and imprisonment. If the person has been previously convicted of a violation of subdivision (a) or any section of this chapter, he or she shall be punished by imprisonment in the state prison.

(e) The provisions of this section do not apply to an employee of a commercial film developer who is acting within the scope of his or her employment and in accordance with the instructions of his or her employer, provided that the employee has no financial interest in the commercial developer by which he or she is employed.

(f) Subdivision (a) does not apply to matter that is unsolicited and is received without knowledge or consent through a facility, system, or network over which the person or entity has no control.

(Amended by Stats. 1996, Ch. 1080, Sec. 4.1. Effective January 1, 1997.)

311.4.

(a) Every person who, with knowledge that a person is a minor, or who, while in possession of any facts on the basis of which he or she should reasonably know that the person is a minor, hires, employs, or uses the minor to do or assist in doing any of the acts described in Section 311.2, shall be punished by imprisonment in the county jail for up to one year, or by a fine not exceeding two thousand dollars ($2,000), or by both that fine and imprisonment, or by imprisonment in the state prison. If the person has previously been convicted of any violation of this section, the court may, in addition to the punishment authorized in Section 311.9, impose a fine not exceeding fifty thousand dollars ($50,000).

(b) Every person who, with knowledge that a person is a minor under the age of 18 years, or who, while in possession of any facts on the basis of which he or she should reasonably know that the person is a minor under the age of 18 years, knowingly promotes, employs, uses, persuades, induces, or coerces a minor under the age of 18 years, or any parent or guardian of a minor under the age of 18 years under his or her control who knowingly permits the minor, to engage in or assist others to engage in either posing or modeling alone or with others for purposes of preparing any representation of information, data, or image, including, but not limited to, any film, filmstrip, photograph, negative, slide, photocopy, videotape, video laser disc, computer hardware, computer software, computer floppy disc, data storage media, CD-ROM, or computer-generated equipment or any other computer-generated image that contains or incorporates in any manner, any film, filmstrip, or a live performance involving, sexual conduct by a minor under the age of 18 years alone or with other persons or animals, for commercial purposes, is guilty of a felony and shall be punished by imprisonment in the state prison for three, six, or eight years.

(c) Every person who, with knowledge that a person is a minor under the age of 18 years, or who, while in possession of any facts on the basis of which he or she should reasonably know that the person is a minor under the age of 18 years, knowingly promotes, employs, uses, persuades, induces, or coerces a minor under the age of 18 years, or any parent or guardian of a minor under the age of 18 years under his or her control who knowingly permits the minor, to engage in or assist others to engage in either posing or modeling alone or with others for purposes of preparing any representation of information, data, or image, including, but not limited to, any film, filmstrip, photograph, negative, slide, photocopy, videotape, video laser disc, computer hardware, computer software, computer floppy disc, data storage media, CD-ROM, or computer-generated equipment or any other computer-generated image that contains or incorporates in any manner, any film, filmstrip, or a live performance involving, sexual conduct by a minor under the age of 18 years alone or with other persons or animals, is guilty of a felony. It is not necessary to prove commercial purposes in order to establish a violation of this subdivision.

(d) (1) As used in subdivisions (b) and (c), “sexual conduct” means any of the following, whether actual or simulated: sexual intercourse, oral copulation, anal intercourse, anal oral copulation, masturbation, bestiality, sexual sadism, sexual masochism, penetration of the vagina or rectum by any object in a lewd or lascivious manner, exhibition of the genitals or pubic or rectal area for the purpose of sexual stimulation of the viewer, any lewd or lascivious sexual act as defined in Section 288, or excretory functions performed in a lewd or lascivious manner, whether or not any of the above conduct is performed alone or between members of the same or opposite sex or between humans and animals. An act is simulated when it gives the appearance of being sexual conduct.

(2) As used in subdivisions (b) and (c), “matter” means any film, filmstrip, photograph, negative, slide, photocopy, videotape, video laser disc, computer hardware, computer software, computer floppy disc, or any other computer-related equipment or computer-generated image that contains or incorporates in any manner, any film, filmstrip, photograph, negative, slide, photocopy, videotape, or video laser disc.

(e) This section does not apply to a legally emancipated minor or to lawful conduct between spouses if one or both are under the age of 18.

(f) In every prosecution under this section involving a minor under the age of 14 years at the time of the offense, the age of the victim shall be pled and proven for the purpose of the enhanced penalty provided in Section 647.6. Failure to plead and prove that the victim was under the age of 14 years at the time of the offense is not a bar to prosecution under this section if it is proven that the victim was under the age of 18 years at the time of the offense.

(Amended by Stats. 2006, Ch. 337, Sec. 21. Effective September 20, 2006.)

311.10.

(a) Any person who advertises for sale or distribution any obscene matter knowing that it depicts a person under the age of 18 years personally engaging in or personally simulating sexual conduct, as defined in Section 311.4, is guilty of a felony and is punishable by imprisonment in the state prison for two, three, or four years, or in a county jail not exceeding one year, or by a fine not exceeding fifty thousand dollars ($50,000), or by both such fine and imprisonment.

(b) Subdivision (a) shall not apply to the activities of law enforcement and prosecution agencies in the investigation and prosecution of criminal offenses.

(Added by Stats. 1985, Ch. 1550, Sec. 1.)

311.11.

(a) Every person who knowingly possesses or controls any matter, representation of information, data, or image, including, but not limited to, any film, filmstrip, photograph, negative, slide, photocopy, videotape, video laser disc, computer hardware, computer software, computer floppy disc, data storage media, CD-ROM, or computer-generated equipment or any other computer-generated image that contains or incorporates in any manner, any film or filmstrip, the production of which involves the use of a person under 18 years of age, knowing that the matter depicts a person under 18 years of age personally engaging in or simulating sexual conduct, as defined in subdivision (d) of Section 311.4, is guilty of a felony and shall be punished by imprisonment in the state prison, or a county jail for up to one year, or by a fine not exceeding two thousand five hundred dollars ($2,500), or by both the fine and imprisonment.

(b) Every person who commits a violation of subdivision (a), and who has been previously convicted of a violation of this section, an offense requiring registration under the Sex Offender Registration Act, or an attempt to commit any of the above-mentioned offenses, is guilty of a felony and shall be punished by imprisonment in the state prison for two, four, or six years.

(c) Each person who commits a violation of subdivision (a) shall be punished by imprisonment in the state prison for 16 months, or two or five years, or shall be punished by imprisonment in a county jail for up to one year, or by a fine not exceeding two thousand five hundred dollars ($2,500), or by both the fine and imprisonment, if one of the following factors exists:

(1) The matter contains more than 600 images that violate subdivision (a), and the matter contains 10 or more images involving a prepubescent minor or a minor who has not attained 12 years of age.

(2) The matter portrays sexual sadism or sexual masochism involving a person under 18 years of age. For purposes of this section, “sexual sadism” means the intentional infliction of pain for purposes of sexual gratification or stimulation. For purposes of this section, “sexual masochism” means intentionally experiencing pain for purposes of sexual gratification or stimulation.

(d) It is not necessary to prove that the matter is obscene in order to establish a violation of this section.

(e) This section does not apply to drawings, figurines, statues, or any film rated by the Motion Picture Association of America, nor does it apply to live or recorded telephone messages when transmitted, disseminated, or distributed as part of a commercial transaction.

(f) For purposes of determining the number of images under paragraph (1) of subdivision (c), the following shall apply:

(1) Each photograph, picture, computer or computer-generated image, or any similar visual depiction shall be considered to be one image.

(2) Each video, video-clip, movie, or similar visual depiction shall be considered to have 50 images.

(Amended by Stats. 2014, Ch. 54, Sec. 12. Effective January 1, 2015. Note: This section was amended on Nov. 7, 2006, by initiative Prop. 83.)

 


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