劉龍珠律師 (已有 1,726,337 人访问过博主空间)

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从赵雷团队被拒入境谈一谈如何应对通关种种意外

作者:劉龍珠律師  于 2017-11-22 02:41 发表于 最热闹的华人社交网络--贝壳村

通用分类:热点杂谈

从赵雷团队被拒入境谈一谈如何应对通关种种意外

赵雷作为选秀选手出身,经纪公司要安排4场北美巡演,可是把他给乐坏了——微博、娱乐版头条各处宣传“赵雷:我要开全球巡演啦!”谁知团队申请美国签证,连旅游和演出都傻傻不分,结果,集体被拒,集体悲剧——签证与赴美目的不同,被拒签是最轻的,严重的很可能遭到遣返、甚至5年不得赴美。

今天我们谈一谈,通关时候的正确态度和举止,以及各种意外应当如何应对。

态度、语言、气质体现了一个人的文化层次和道德水平,海关官员会在这些方面对游客察言观色,以确定该游客是否有可能在美国逗留期间违法犯罪,从而危害美国社会的安全。

(1)        穿着要好,但是态度不能傲慢无礼。要有土豪的衣服,但是不能有土豪的作风。要豪,但不能土,否则就成了暴发户。

之前有一个来自中国的土豪通关时态度傲慢,嫌海关废话多、动作慢,于是大吼大叫:大爷我是拿了大笔钱来美国消费的,再啰嗦大爷就不来了。结果平时蛮横无理的海关官员这一次表现得特别善解人意,立刻就把这位大爷遣返了。

在海关官员的逻辑里,有礼貌、有教养和诚信是相辅相成的。即便有些傲慢无礼之徒没有被遣返,但也会被隔离起来第二次审查Secondary Screening),造成不必要的麻烦。

2)背景很重要。那些看上去没有受过高等教育、收入不高的孕妇在美国非法逗留的可能性远远大于那些穿着考究、举止得体、谈吐优雅的职业女性。受采访的海关官员说,根据他的经验,受过高等教育、拥有雄厚资金的孕妇成功入境的通过率很高。而那种即使有钱,但行为轻佻、放荡的女性,让人怀疑钱是非法色情行业所得。

要让海关觉得你没有理由移民美国

游客应有回程的机票以及回国的意愿。例如,游客的家人、工作、财产等对其构成了巨大的约束力,使海关官员觉得其不可能会放弃这些移民美国,因此可以顺利通关。这也就意味着如果来美的只身女性说她来美探访男友,那她在美国结婚的可能性就很大,因此被海关遣返的可能性也相应的大大增加。

总而言之:在中国的约束力越大,在美国越没有约束力,那么海关放行的可能性就越大。

如果被拒入关怎么办?

有的游客被海关认定有移民倾向,即将遣送回国时,游客为了留在美国,申请政治庇护。在这种情况下,海关一般会察觉到游客的动机,不认可这是主动行为,于是便会用策略告诉游客其即将面临拘禁。个别海关官员也许会夸大其辞,加深游客对于拘禁的恐惧感。但实际上,这种拘禁不同于对刑事犯罪嫌疑人的拘禁,只是被隔离。然后等待美国移民局庇护面谈官的问话。

根据美国移民法,政治庇护申请者有权利聘请代理律师,但实际上,这种申请政治庇护属于被动申请Defense Asylum),从被拘禁到被移民官问话,中间往往只有几天时间(不同于Affirmative Asylum主动申请政治庇护)。这么短的时间往往来不及找到相关的律师。这时建议联系联合国难民委员会,对方会给予帮助。

United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees

1775 K Street NW, Suite 300, Washington, DC 20006

电话:202-296-5191888-272-1913

网址: www.unhcr.org

海关可以查手机

美国海关有权力检查入关者的随身物品,包括手机和计算机里的文文件和聊天记录。美国海关有懂中文的官员,可以看懂微信记录。联邦政府扫荡月子中心之后,检查越来越频繁。

美国海关边境保护局(Customs and Border Protection, CBP)官方网站上有这样一段话:

We may also examine your baggage, including electronic equipment, or your car, which we have the legal authority to do.

我们可能会检查您的包裹,包括电子设备,或您的车辆,我们有法律赋予的权力做这样的检查。

游客必须配合海关的检查。如果拒绝检查,将大大加重海关的怀疑,除了被遣返之外,还有可能会被采取强制检查措施。就好比拒捕不但没用,反而罪上加罪。

也不要自作聪明地推说手机和计算机的开机密码忘记了,或借口计算机、手机里有夫妻之间的隐私照片不能让海关看,那样也会增加被遣返的可能性。

就让海天盛宴留在美好的回忆里吧,除非你实在想与美国的海关官员分享。

另外,美国法律对涉及未成年人(18岁以下)的色情数据惩罚非常严厉。联邦法律规定:

● 对于以商业手段故意接受、运输、传播、出售或准备出售涉及未成年人的色情资料的,初犯者将被罚款并处以5年以上20年以下的监禁,累犯者罚款并处以15年以上40年以下的监禁。

● 对于持有或有意观看涉及未成年人的色情资料的,将被罚款并处以最高10年的监禁。其中涉及12岁以下幼儿色情资料的,处以最高20年的监禁。

由此可见,即使是持有相关的色情资料都是有罪的!所以这里要特别提醒那些力旺盛的祖国同胞们:把你们手机、计算机、iPad里面的岛国女优统统删掉吧。本来亚洲人相对美国人而言就看上去显小,30岁的长得像15岁,这样就很容易让美国海关官员认定你涉嫌持有、观看儿童色情资料

以下是美国联邦法律在这方面的原文:

18 U.S. Code § 2252 –

Certain activities relating to material involving the sexual exploitation of minors

(a) Any person who—

(1) knowingly transports or ships using any means or facility of interstate or foreign commerce or in or affecting interstate or foreign commerce by any means including by computer or mails, any visual depiction, if—

(A) the producing of such visual depiction involves the use of a minor engaging in sexually explicit conduct; and

(B) such visual depiction is of such conduct;

(2) knowingly receives, or distributes, any visual depiction using any means or facility of interstate or foreign commerce or that has been mailed, or has been shipped or transported in or affecting interstate or foreign commerce, or which contains materials which have been mailed or so shipped or transported, by any means including by computer, or knowingly reproduces any visual depiction for distribution using any means or facility of interstate or foreign commerce or in or affecting interstate or foreign commerce or through the mails, if—

(A) the producing of such visual depiction involves the use of a minor engaging in sexually explicit conduct; and

(B) such visual depiction is of such conduct;

(3) either—

(A) in the special maritime and territorial jurisdiction of the United States, or on any land or building owned by, leased to, or otherwise used by or under the control of the Government of the United States, or in the Indian country as defined in section 1151 of this title, knowingly sells or possesses with intent to sell any visual depiction; or

(B) knowingly sells or possesses with intent to sell any visual depiction that has been mailed, shipped, or transported using any means or facility of interstate or foreign commerce, or has been shipped or transported in or affecting interstate or foreign commerce, or which was produced using materials which have been mailed or so shipped or transported using any means or facility of interstate or foreign commerce, including by computer, if—

(i) the producing of such visual depiction involves the use of a minor engaging in sexually explicit conduct; and

(ii) such visual depiction is of such conduct; or

(4) either—

(A) in the special maritime and territorial jurisdiction of the United States, or on any land or building owned by, leased to, or otherwise used by or under the control of the Government of the United States, or in the Indian country as defined in section 1151 of this title, knowingly possesses, or knowingly accesses with intent to view, 1 or more books, magazines, periodicals, films, video tapes, or other matter which contain any visual depiction; or

(B) knowingly possesses, or knowingly accesses with intent to view, 1 or more books, magazines, periodicals, films, video tapes, or other matter which contain any visual depiction that has been mailed, or has been shipped or transported using any means or facility of interstate or foreign commerce or in or affecting interstate or foreign commerce, or which was produced using materials which have been mailed or so shipped or transported, by any means including by computer, if—

(i) the producing of such visual depiction involves the use of a minor engaging in sexually explicit conduct; and

(ii) such visual depiction is of such conduct;

shall be punished as provided in subsection (b) of this section.

(b)

(1) Whoever violates, or attempts or conspires to violate, paragraph (1), (2), or (3) of subsection (a) shall be fined under this title and imprisoned not less than 5 years and not more than 20 years, but if such person has a prior conviction under this chapter, section 1591, chapter 71section 1591, chapter 71, chapter 109A, or chapter 117, or under section 920 of title 10 (article 120 of the Uniform Code of Military Justice), or under the laws of any State relating to aggravated sexual abuse, sexual abuse, or abusive sexual conduct involving a minor or ward, or the production, possession, receipt, mailing, sale, distribution, shipment, or transportation of child pornography, or sex trafficking of children, such person shall be fined under this title and imprisoned for not less than 15 years nor more than 40 years.

(2) Whoever violates, or attempts or conspires to violate, paragraph (4) of subsection (a) shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than 10 years, or both, but if any visual depiction involved in the offense involved a prepubescent minor or a minor who had not attained 12 years of age, such person shall be fined under this title and imprisoned for not more than 20 years, or if such person has a prior conviction under this chapter, chapter 71, chapter 109A, or chapter 117, or under section 920 of title 10 (article 120 of the Uniform Code of Military Justice), or under the laws of any State relating to aggravated sexual abuse, sexual abuse, or abusive sexual conduct involving a minor or ward, or the production, possession, receipt, mailing, sale, distribution, shipment, or transportation of child pornography, such person shall be fined under this title and imprisoned for not less than 10 years nor more than 20 years.

(c) Affirmative Defense.— It shall be an affirmative defense to a charge of violating paragraph (4) of subsection (a) that the defendant—

(1) possessed less than three matters containing any visual depiction proscribed by that paragraph; and

(2) promptly and in good faith, and without retaining or allowing any person, other than a law enforcement agency, to access any visual depiction or copy thereof—

(A) took reasonable steps to destroy each such visual depiction; or

(B) reported the matter to a law enforcement agency and afforded that agency access to each such visual depiction.

最新趋势

根据美国移民法中有关持非移民签证在美合法停留期的规定:持商务/旅游签证在美国的停留期一般不超过一年,可根据情况延期,每次延期不超过6个月。旅游签证(B-2)一般可以获得最少6个月的合法停留期。有关这部份的法律条文如下:

8 CFR 214.2 –

Special requirements for admission, extension, and maintenance of status.

(b) Visitors—

(1) General. Any B-1 visitor for business or B-2 visitor for pleasure may be admitted for not more than one year and may be granted extensions of temporary stay in increments of not more than six months each, except that alien members of a religious denomination coming temporarily and solely to do missionary work in behalf of a religious denomination may be granted extensions of not more than one year each, provided that such work does not involve the selling of articles or the solicitation or acceptance of donations. Those B-1 and B-2 visitors admitted pursuant to the waiver provided at § 212.1(e) of this chapter may be admitted to and stay on Guam for period not to exceed fifteen days and are not eligible for extensions of stay.

(2) Minimum six month admissions. Any B-2 visitor who is found otherwise admissible and is issued a Form I-94 (see § 1.4), will be admitted for a minimum period of six months, regardless of whether less time is requested, provided, that any required passport is valid as specified in section 212(a)(26) of the Act. Exceptions to the minimum six month admission may be made only in individual cases upon the specific approval of the district director for good cause.

游客在美的停留期,在游客入关面谈时,由美国海关决定。现在来美国的游客只要能进来,大多数被海关批准的逗留期都是6个月。

海关批准6个月的逗留期,但不代表你一定要住满6个月,旅个游不需要那么久。如果你真的住满6个月,虽然没有违反规定,但下次再来,会在入关时遇到麻烦。海关会强烈怀疑你有移民倾向。

只有极其个别的情况,海关严重怀疑孕妇是蓄意来美生子的(签证时没有向签证官说明赴美生子,但过海关承认要生子,因此被海关怀疑签证欺诈),但是又因为孕妇有一定经济实力,因此没有遣返她,但也没有批准6个月的停留期,只给了一到三个月。

这种情况下,可申请延期,程序是向移民局(Unites States Citizenship and Immigration Services, USCIS)提交I-539表及290美元申请费。可能结果如下:

1)成功获得批准延期,那么孕妇就有充足的时间生宝宝。

2)延期申请被拒,从申请信寄出,一般要3个工作日才能到达移民局,移民局花几个工作日审核申请,将拒绝信寄回,又是一般要3个工作日孕妇才能收到。一来一去十天就拖过去了。移民局通常会让申请者收到拒绝信之后30天内离开。也就是说,最多还可以拖30天。这样这些零零碎碎的时间加起来,差不多也就够生宝宝了。以下这段文字来自于由美国海关边境保护局(Customs and Border Protection, CBP)的官方网页:

Extension of Stay Denied

Q: If my request to stay past my initial period of admission was denied by U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Service (USCIS), how long do I have before I have to leave the U.S.?

A: USCIS generally allows you 30 days to depart the U.S. starting from the date on the letter notifying you of their decision to deny an extension. If you do not depart within 30 days, you will be considered deportable. USCIS cautions that if you are refused permission to extend your stay, you may encounter problems with Consulates overseas the next time you apply for a U.S. visa because their computer records will indicate that you did not leave the U.S. within the time frame of your initial period of entry. Be sure to keep your rejection letter and proof of the date of your departure (a boarding pass is the best thing, but passport stamps showing entry into another country is also helpful) to give the consulate the next time you apply for a new visa. Having those may mitigate your apparent overstay and could improve your chances of renewing your visa without the five year restriction usually applied to people that have overstayed their visit.

其它问题

1)如果中国夫妻来美旅游,随行的有在美国生的小孩,是否会增加被拒绝入境的可能性?

一般情况下不会。在美国出生的小孩是美国公民。美国海关不能拒绝美国公民入境,只能拒绝不是美国公民的父母入境。但考虑到父母需要照顾孩子,海关会根据情况酌情考虑。比如孩子有多大年龄,生活是否能自理,以及游客一家来美的目的,等等。说白了,就是要确定他们是否按时离开、不非法滞留。

2)如果中国夫妻来美旅游,随行的有在中国生的小孩,是否会增加拒绝入境的可能性?

会。美国实行12年制义务教育,很多中国孩子以游客身份来美国,一来就不走了,享受免费教育,占用美国纳税人的资源。美国政府极力杜绝这种现象的发生。因此,被拒绝入境的可能性很大。

3)在不确定女性游客是否怀孕的情况下,海关会不会适用X光机或者B超等医疗设备去检测?

不会。如果海关怀疑游客怀孕,但她又不承认,那么海关会进行更具体的隔离问话,他们内部称之为第二次审查Secondary Screening)。海关会通过女性游客的表情、神态、穿着以及随身计算机、手机里的聊天内容来进行判断,但不会使用专业的医疗设备。

近年来中国赴美留学的学生越来越多,美国海关特别提醒即将来美求学的中国留学生,在出发到美国前,确定所有文件,包括学校发出的I-20、有效护照以及美国签证等,都要带齐,以缩短入关时间,确保权益。

以上内容摘自刘龙珠律师最新著作《川普时代如何合法赴美生子》——书中讲述了刘律师作为2年前加州月子中心扫荡案中孕妇代表律师的亲身经历,同时给出了诸多关于赴美生子、签证过关要领的法律建议,结合其多年美国法律从业经验和与海关资深官员交流结果,无论是赴美生子的准妈妈,还是圆美国梦想的留学生,都能够从中获益匪浅。
预购刘律师新书《川普时代如何合法赴美生子》,请至美国洛杉矶金石堂、吉利书局或常青书局(全统广场店)购买。

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