法官来到我们班- 温哥华高中(14)

作者:卉樱果  于 2011-12-11 04:31 发表于 最热闹的华人社交网络--贝壳村

作者分类:读书生涯|通用分类:法律相关|已有46评论

关键词:, , 政府部门, 司法部长, 委员会

二008年三月二十六日下午,省高级法院的本尼特法官先生来到我们班讲解加拿大的“司法独立”,然後回答学生的问题。

本尼特法官先生说,加拿大法律是从几方面保障司法独立的体制:确保法官的收入,确保法官的职位,确保法官不涉及他/她所熟悉的环境人物之案件。最後一点也是最重要的,确保司法与立法、执法、和政府部门的分开。

能够成为一个法官,就意味着进入了高收入一族。本尼特法官先生自报年收入为二十五万两千,再加上五千加元的书报费。这个数字那与加拿大2006年 家庭平均收入六万五加元的比较,那不是一般的可观。给与法官高薪的原 因,据说是为了避免他们受贿,另一方面也是对他们十年寒窗苦读和长期辛勤工作的回报。想象一下我们国内法官的收入,甚至少于国内外企销售员,那就无语了。

另一个保障司法独立的政策就是法官的职位是终身制的。法官的任命程序是这样的,有一个独立的委员会根据律师或者司法工作人员的优秀品德给出一个名单。名单中的候选人年龄,女性在三十岁以上,男性在四十岁以上,相信比较成熟的年龄也就比较能独立思考不受干扰的能力。然後省首席检察官从名单中选任省法院的法官, 联邦司法部长或者总理从名单中选任联邦法院或省高级法院的法官。一旦被任命为法官,省法院工作的七十岁才退休,省高级法院和联邦法院的到七十五岁。这样, 因为他们的位置是稳固的,法官在法庭上将无畏地做出判决。

还有,法官必须回避任何他/她所熟悉的环境(社区)和人物所牵连的案件。这是一条纪律,如果法官认为自己无法作出中间公正的判决,他们必须退出审理。另外,在加拿大,法官不得参与任何政党(这和美国不一样),这样也就预防了政治倾向影响法官的公正判决。

在加拿大,最重要的政策是司法、执法、立法是完全分开的。执法是内阁和公务人员,称为服务员(servants), 不是领导也不是上司。立法人员是被选出来的法律制定者,司法是在法院工作的人员。司法部门与另外两个毫无关联,完全独立;这样,就保证了司法的基本原则。 虽然不少国家标榜自己也是三角鼎力的制度,可是真正做到就比较困难。因为这样的话,每个人(包括国家主席总统总理)在法律面前和条款下真正的平等了。

本尼特法官先生说完後,班级里每个学生开始提问。我问了两个问题,可是没有一个答案是令人满意的。

第一个问题是:加拿大政策如何能保证法官生涯中一直保持他们的美德?如果他们犯了错误如何处置。本尼特法官先生的答复仅仅限于身体健康方面:他说如果发生法官在开庭时打瞌睡或者思想不集中或者由于生病缺席,那么他可病假六个月或者提前退休。

然而,我们的教科书上的信息是,如果法官有误判,原告可以与律师、法律援助或者社区法律处联系,决定是否要想对此位法官的判决提出上诉。另外,如果有一方不满意法官的操作行为,可以与法院人员核实法官的工作地点,决定到底是向加拿大司法委员会还是省法院提出投诉。

我第二个问题是本尼特法官先生是否曾经有拒绝接纳由警察或者检察官用不当手段获得的证据。法官先生说有的,但是他举例仅仅是“听说”的证据不能采纳,还有情侣或者夫妻的一方证据不能采纳。看来他很回避提及警察或者检察官负面的行为。

除了上述两条,总的来说,这位法官先生的讲课对于学生总结和理解司法独立这个概念很有帮助。司法独立时区别社会和国家是民主体制还是专制体制。我尊重司法独立,而且我认为,真正做到比自诩更为艰难。

原文是作业:

Report of Judge’s Visit on 26 March 2008

On 26th March, Mr. Justice Burnyeat, a judge from Provincial Supreme Court gave our class a lecture of Judicial Independence in Canada, after that he answered students question.

Mr. Justice Burnyeat says the system of Canada ensures Judicial Independence by the following ways: Security of salary for Judges, security position of Judges, security of separation between Judges and his/her familiar environment of cases. And the last and most important policy is that Judiciary is independent of the executive, legislature and government.

Being a judge, which means he/she can have high salary. Mr. Justice Burnyeat gave his own example that his annual income is around 252,000 CAD, plus 5000 CAD of stationery fee. Comparing to the average income – 65,000 CAD – this job is very good paid.  The reasons to let Judges make much higher salary are preventing them from bribery, and the reward to their longer terms study and hard work. This is very important and great policy. I have known some Judges were not impartial in China because they were lured by palm grease. Just imagine that the income for a judge in China is much less than a sales people in the foreigner-owned company in China.

Security position of Judges is one of the issues to protect independence of the judiciary. Mr. Justice Burnyeat says that Judges are selected by committee based on their merits, and appointed by attorney general (for Provincial) or federal minister of justice or Prime minister. Once Judges appointed, it is a life term career until reach 75 (appointed by Federal) or 70 (appointed by Provincial). In this case, Judge will not have any fear to make decision in the court because their positions are not easily moved. Another regulation is that only those reach a certain age will be selected as Judge, for woman, it will be above 30, and for man will be above 40. People believe that a mature person will be more difficult to be influenced by other people’s opinion or worldview.

Moreover, Judges must be separated from the cases that any one involved in the case that Judges are familiar with. This is like a discipline, Judges must withdraw the cases if they thinks that they are not capable to be impartial. On the other hand, in Canada, any politician or party member is not allowed to be a judge, which prevents one from influence of any political orientation.

The most significant policy in Canada is that three branches of government are completely separated. The executive are the cabinet and civil servants (not bosses!!!), the legislature are the elected law makers, and the judiciary are the people work in  the courts. The Judiciary is independent of the other two; therefor, it ensures the principle of fundamental justice. It is very hard to do so than to claim so. Then every one is equal in front of or under law no matter how high the person’s position is.

After the speech give by Mr. Justice Burnyeat, students became to raise questions. I asked Mr. Justice Burnyeat two question; however, none of the answers satisfied me.

My first question is how can judges keep their merits all their business life; and what will be done if they made mistakes. Mr. Justice Burnyeat’s reply it from the physical side only. He says in case a judge falling asleep during court, or does not think clearly, or absent due to healthy problem, he/she can ask sick leave or early retire.

Never the less, from the handout information and our law 12 class, we know that if a judge made a decision with mistake in the courts, the complainant can contact a lawyer, legal aid office or community legal clinic to determine whether or not they can appeal the decision. Also if the complainant does not satisfied with Judge’s conduct, he/she can check with court staff where the judges sits, to determine whether to bring the compliant to the Canada Judicial Council or to provincial officials.

My another question was that if Mr. Justice Burnyeat had ever excluded evidence because it was obtained by improper way. Mr. Justice Burnyeat said yes, but his examples were not related with “improper” way. He said hearsay could not be used as evidence, what you tell your sponsor can not be used in the court. He seems avoid telling any negative examples that police or Crown would possibly do.

Apart from the issues listed above, Mr. Justice Burnyeat’s visit, anyway, helps us student to summarize and understanding the terms of Judicial Independence in Canada. The Judicial Independence is a keystone to distinguish systems of a democracy country or a dictatorship country. I respect the Judicial Independence from the bottom of my heart, because I was come from China. I wish it can be executed all the countries so that bring the democracy to the whole world.


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发表评论 评论 (46 个评论)

4 回复 fanlaifuqu 2011-12-11 04:47
有很多要学的地方!
1 回复 卉樱果 2011-12-11 04:49
fanlaifuqu: 有很多要学的地方!
对某些国家来说,制度不变,很难学
1 回复 wcat 2011-12-11 04:49
美国有的法官是任命的,有的(不记得是哪种)是选的。法官高薪,但有的也照样犯法。
3 回复 卉樱果 2011-12-11 04:50
fanlaifuqu: 有很多要学的地方!
你到底说是谁要学呀?
2 回复 卉樱果 2011-12-11 04:57
wcat: 美国有的法官是任命的,有的(不记得是哪种)是选的。法官高薪,但有的也照样犯法。
概率要小一些吧
1 回复 wcat 2011-12-11 04:59
卉樱果: 概率要小一些吧
这可能。现在中国社会,唉
1 回复 人間的盒子 2011-12-11 05:19
中国的法制就是缺少这种公正独立,但也不是件容易解决的事情,很多相应的东西也不健全。
1 回复 fanlaifuqu 2011-12-11 05:20
卉樱果: 你到底说是谁要学呀?
象我们的祖国呀!
0 回复 mosville 2011-12-11 05:26
联邦法官是经过总统任命,国会批准,终身制;但是年薪没有加拿大的高,所以不少法官过几年辞职,去做律师和合伙人。
3 回复 专治蛋疼2 2011-12-11 06:56
不要奢望我天朝朝廷会自己放弃一部分权力,我裆是靠枪杆子夺取政权的,同理要它放弃一点也要靠同样的方式方法。这就是维稳费高居不下的根本理由。
1 回复 活水涌泉 2011-12-11 06:57
你写得真实,有说服力。
0 回复 putongren10 2011-12-11 07:24
过去,中国的居委会也不错
2 回复 无为村姑 2011-12-11 08:36
法官真有权。可我们加拿大有的法官太独断啦,对罪犯太有容忍度啦~~~
1 回复 卉樱果 2011-12-11 09:51
人間的盒子: 中国的法制就是缺少这种公正独立,但也不是件容易解决的事情,很多相应的东西也不健全。
如果中国法制公正独立,那就有救了
1 回复 卉樱果 2011-12-11 09:51
fanlaifuqu: 象我们的祖国呀!
那么我的理解正确
0 回复 卉樱果 2011-12-11 09:52
mosville: 联邦法官是经过总统任命,国会批准,终身制;但是年薪没有加拿大的高,所以不少法官过几年辞职,去做律师和合伙人。
不错的生意哦,因为了解法官的思路
0 回复 dwqdaniel 2011-12-11 09:55
无为村姑: 法官真有权。可我们加拿大有的法官太独断啦,对罪犯太有容忍度啦~~~
同感,这里的法官简直宽容到混蛋地步,所谓“宁可错放一千,绝不冤枉一个”,多伦多有个叫唐伟真的骗子,非法集资了几千万,被人告发,法官大人仁慈开恩,一次又一次给他机会辩解,至今还神气活现地逍遥着,去年还竞选多伦多市长,这事要是放在国内,大刑伺候,早被砍头了,呵呵。
1 回复 卉樱果 2011-12-11 09:56
专治蛋疼2: 不要奢望我天朝朝廷会自己放弃一部分权力,我裆是靠枪杆子夺取政权的,同理要它放弃一点也要靠同样的方式方法。这就是维稳费高居不下的根本理由。
一点也不奢望。不过党的新华报解放前写的“一党专制”蛮讽刺的,列出的就是他们现在的行径。
1 回复 卉樱果 2011-12-11 09:56
活水涌泉: 你写得真实,有说服力。
偶上课记笔记很认真滴~
0 回复 卉樱果 2011-12-11 09:58
putongren10: 过去,中国的居委会也不错
50~80年代初还是为人民服务的,记得有大炼钢铁,薰蚊子臭虫,发冰块,地板蜡,等等
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