转来【罗马帝国灭亡的八个原因】

作者:刘小曼  于 2016-5-23 03:09 发表于 最热闹的华人社交网络--贝壳村

作者分类:历史资料|通用分类:英文分享|已有4评论

转来【罗马帝国灭亡的八个原因】

罗马帝国的灭亡归咎以下八个主要原因:1)野蛮部落的侵略,2)经济困境和过度依赖奴隶劳力,3)东罗马帝国的扩张,4)军事超支,5)政府腐败和政治动荡,6)匈奴和野蛮部落的迁移, 7)基督教与传统价值观的丧失,和8)罗马军团的削弱。




In the late fourth century, the Western Roman Empire crumbled after a nearly 500-year run as the world’s greatest superpower. Historians have blamed the collapse on hundreds of different factors ranging from military failures and crippling taxation to natural disasters and even climate change. Still others argue that the Roman Empire didn’t really fall in 476 A.D., since its eastern half continued for another thousand years in the form of the Byzantine Empire. While just how—and when—the Empire fell remains a subject of ongoing debate, certain theories have emerged as the most popular explanations for Western Rome’s decline and disintegration. Read on to discover eight reasons why one of history’s most legendary empires finally came crashing down.




1
Invasions by Barbarian tribes

The most straightforward theory for Western Rome’s collapse pins the fall on a string of military losses sustained against outside forces. Rome had tangled with Germanic tribes for centuries, but by the 300s “barbarian” groups like the Goths had encroached beyond the Empire’s borders. The Romans weathered a Germanic uprising in the late fourth century, but in 410 the Visigoth King Alaric successfully sacked the city of Rome. The Empire spent the next several decades under constant threat before “the Eternal City” was raided again in 455, this time by the Vandals. Finally, in 476, the Germanic leader Odoacer staged a revolt and deposed the Emperor Romulus Augustulus. From then on, no Roman emperor would ever again rule from a post in Italy, leading many to cite 476 as the year the Western Empire suffered its deathblow.

2
Economic troubles and overreliance on slave labor

Even as Rome was under attack from outside forces, it was also crumbling from within thanks to a severe financial crisis. Constant wars and overspending had significantly lightened imperial coffers, and oppressive taxation and inflation had widened the gap between rich and poor. In the hope of avoiding the taxman, many members of the wealthy classes had even fled to the countryside and set up independent fiefdoms. At the same time, the empire was rocked by a labor deficit. Rome’s economy depended on slaves to till its fields and work as craftsmen, and its military might had traditionally provided a fresh influx of conquered peoples to put to work. But when expansion ground to a halt in the second century, Rome’s supply of slaves and other war treasures began to dry up. A further blow came in the fifth century, when the Vandals claimed North Africa and began disrupting the empire’s trade by prowling the Mediterranean as pirates. With its economy faltering and its commercial and agricultural production in decline, the Empire began to lose its grip on Europe.

3
The rise of the Eastern Empire

The fate of Western Rome was partially sealed in the late third century, when the Emperor Diocletian divided the Empire into two halves—the Western Empire seated in the city of Milan, and the Eastern Empire in Byzantium, later known as Constantinople. The division made the empire more easily governable in the short term, but over time the two halves drifted apart. East and West failed to adequately work together to combat outside threats, and the two often squabbled over resources and military aid. As the gulf widened, the largely Greek-speaking Eastern Empire grew in wealth while the Latin-speaking West descended into economic crisis. Most importantly, the strength of the Eastern Empire served to divert Barbarian invasions to the West. Emperors like Constantine ensured that the city of Constantinople was fortified and well guarded, but Italy and the city of Rome—which only had symbolic value for many in the East—were left vulnerable. The Western political structure would finally disintegrate in the fifth century, but the Eastern Empire endured in some form for another thousand years before being overwhelmed by the Ottoman Empire in the 1400s.

4
Overexpansion and military overspending

At its height, the Roman Empire stretched from the Atlantic Ocean all the way to the Euphrates River in the Middle East, but its grandeur may have also been its downfall. With such a vast territory to govern, the empire faced an administrative and logistical nightmare. Even with their excellent road systems, the Romans were unable to communicate quickly or effectively enough to manage their holdings. Rome struggled to marshal enough troops and resources to defend its frontiers from local rebellions and outside attacks, and by the second century the Emperor Hadrian was forced to build his famous wall in Britain just to keep the enemy at bay. As more and more funds were funneled into the military upkeep of the empire, technological advancement slowed and Rome’s civil infrastructure fell into disrepair.

5
Government corruption and political instability

If Rome’s sheer size made it difficult to govern, ineffective and inconsistent leadership only served to magnify the problem. Being the Roman emperor had always been a particularly dangerous job, but during the tumultuous second and third centuries it nearly became a death sentence. Civil war thrust the empire into chaos, and more than 20 men took the throne in the span of only 75 years, usually after the murder of their predecessor. The Praetorian Guard—the emperor’s personal bodyguards—assassinated and installed new sovereigns at will, and once even auctioned the spot off to the highest bidder. The political rot also extended to the Roman Senate, which failed to temper the excesses of the emperors due to its own widespread corruption and incompetence. As the situation worsened, civic pride waned and many Roman citizens lost trust in their leadership.

6
The arrival of the Huns and the migration of the Barbarian tribes

The Barbarian attacks on Rome partially stemmed from a mass migration caused by the Huns’ invasion of Europe in the late fourth century. When these Eurasian warriors rampaged through northern Europe, they drove many Germanic tribes to the borders of the Roman Empire. The Romans grudgingly allowed members of the Visigoth tribe to cross south of the Danube and into the safety of Roman territory, but they treated them with extreme cruelty. According to the historian Ammianus Marcellinus, Roman officials even forced the starving Goths to trade their children into slavery in exchange for dog meat. In brutalizing the Goths, the Romans created a dangerous enemy within their own borders. When the oppression became too much to bear, the Goths rose up in revolt and eventually routed a Roman army and killed the Eastern Emperor Valens during the Battle of Adrianople in A.D. 378. The shocked Romans negotiated a flimsy peace with the barbarians, but the truce unraveled in 410, when the Goth King Alaric moved west and sacked Rome. With the Western Empire weakened, Germanic tribes like the Vandals and the Saxons were able to surge across its borders and occupy Britain, Spain and North Africa.

7
Christianity and the loss of traditional values

The decline of Rome dovetailed with the spread of Christianity, and some have argued that the rise of a new faith helped contribute to the empire’s fall. The Edict of Milan legalized Christianity in 313, and it later became the state religion in 380. These decrees ended centuries of persecution, but they may have also eroded the traditional Roman values system. Christianity displaced the polytheistic Roman religion, which viewed the emperor as having a divine status, and also shifted focus away from the glory of the state and onto a sole deity. Meanwhile, popes and other church eladers took an increased role in political affairs, further complicating governance. The 18th-century historian Edward Gibbon was the most famous proponent of this theory, but his take has since been widely criticized. While the spread of Christianity may have played a small role in curbing Roman civic virtue, most scholars now argue that its influence paled in comparison to military, economic and administrative factors.

8
Weakening of the Roman legions

For most of its history, Rome’s military was the envy of the ancient world. But during the decline, the makeup of the once mighty legions began to change. Unable to recruit enough soldiers from the Roman citizenry, emperors like Diocletian and Constantine began hiring foreign mercenaries to prop up their armies. The ranks of the legions eventually swelled with Germanic Goths and other barbarians, so much so that Romans began using the Latin word “barbarus” in place of “soldier.” While these Germanic soldiers of fortune proved to be fierce warriors, they also had little or no loyalty to the empire, and their power-hungry officers often turned against their Roman employers. In fact, many of the barbarians who sacked the city of Rome and brought down the Western Empire had earned their military stripes while serving in the Roman legions.

Source: http://www.history.com/news/history-lists/8-reasons-why-rome-fell

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发表评论 评论 (4 个评论)

1 回复 putongren10 2016-5-23 03:31
罗马帝国衰落不至这八个原因
1 回复 刘小曼 2016-5-23 04:38
putongren10: 罗马帝国衰落不至这八个原因
谢谢留言,愿闻其详。
1 回复 西部华人 2018-12-10 02:12
根本不是其中任何原因。根本原因是汉朝史官的恶作剧。汉朝初年刘邦铲除异性王导致大量军民北逃加入匈奴并引匈奴人南下威胁汉朝都城,汉军多次抗击败多胜少,于是汉朝向北称臣用和亲纳贡稳住匈奴后转而向南开疆拓土百年灭百越夜郎闽夷等数百族国。汉武帝时向匈奴开战前30年派多路商队进入中亚西亚寻找盟国摸清匈奴疆土情况绘制地图。汉朝史官发现向北基本都是匈奴疆土,向西华人一支大月氏开始进入现在阿富汗和伊朗东部及印度北部已经脱离与匈奴冲突,于是再向西越过现在伊朗伊拉克了解到最西面还有一个国家与匈奴不同,但路途遥远语言不通鞭长莫及,绘地图时给这个国家起名遇到困难,没人知道到底是什么名字,由于中国传统西边蛮族为戎羌,友好国家为夏,因为夏人来自祁连山和汉中最终迁到长江流域,所以汉朝就命名当时的最西边的国家为大夏国,这成为当时的罗马国在中国汉朝的称呼。后来汉破匈奴,匈奴人开始撤出汉朝周围地区,匈奴西部边疆在现在乌克兰西部,因匈奴人征服南下的不少维京人部落,并在现在鹅国北部与维京人战争数百年互有胜负,因此匈奴人向东向北方向都无法再扩展。这时听说西边有个大夏国,匈奴人本是不屈服于商朝的夏朝人,于是误以为汉朝人说的大夏国是其本族,于是五万匈奴人在其酋长带领下本想投奔大夏国本族,不想到现在罗马尼亚发现大夏国根本与匈奴祖先的夏国没关系,而且大夏国人很矮小又是半裸的,根本无法与铁甲匈奴骑兵抗衡,匈奴人的奴隶哥特人也发现罗马军队武器原始不堪一击,于是哥特人先于匈奴人攻入罗马国,因为被汉朝史官欺骗匈奴人把怒火都洒在罗马国身上一路攻下罗马城屠城,罗马国被灭,后来攻占罗马国的匈奴人又不断受到西迁的其他匈奴人的袭扰开始昄依天主教,匈奴人在欧洲分封很多诸侯王,靠天主教在欧洲各地组织骑兵,因匈奴人有限骑兵大队就改成了一个一个骑士团驻防欧洲各地。后来的神的罗马国其实是匈奴人的罗马国了。
回复 西部华人 2018-12-10 02:22
中国东晋时期北方汉人疯狂屠杀迁入华北的胡人,大批已经汉化百余年的南匈奴人也被赶出中国,这些南匈奴人自称hans,他们就是最后一批进入欧洲的匈奴马歇尔人,欧洲的神圣罗马匈奴王接收了马歇尔人,把他们安置在现在匈牙利草原,这些马歇尔人又成为日后的奥匈帝国的主体民族。

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