美国关于朝鲜战争的记录

作者:郭凯敏  于 2011-1-29 07:24 发表于 最热闹的华人社交网络--贝壳村

通用分类:热点杂谈|已有14评论

下面是美国对朝鲜战争的记录。资料来源:http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/history/A0828118.html

二战以后的1948年,世界两大阵营把前日本殖民地朝鲜按38线为界分割为两个国家:北方的朝鲜人民民主共和国(北朝鲜)和南边的大韩民国(南韩)。
1950年6月25日,北朝鲜大举入侵南韩。马上招致联合国的谴责。6月27日,美国总统杜鲁门宣布军事支援南韩。道格拉斯-麦克阿瑟(Douglas MacArthur) 被任命美军司令,统一指挥联合国军队在朝鲜半岛的军事行动。
早期在南韩的美军力量有限,被北朝鲜的军队推到无路可退的釜山。9月15日,联合国军队仁川登陆开始反击。很快把战线推回到北朝鲜。只用了一个月的时间,10月19日,联合国军就拿下了北朝鲜首都平壤。11月24日,联合国军把北朝鲜军队赶到了中朝边境的鸭绿江边。
11月26日,中国军队开始进入朝鲜,开始了反攻战役。1951年1月,中国军队和北朝鲜军队再次占领汉城。以后数月的战争都是在38线附近拉锯。
麦克阿瑟要纠结力量再次攻入北朝鲜,并公开地批评美国政府的政策。1951年4月10日,美国总统杜鲁门解除了麦克阿瑟的联军总指挥职务,任命马太。李奇微(Matthew B. Ridgway)将军继任联军总指挥。(李奇微上阵后,很快摸清了志愿军的套路和弱点,指挥联军很得力,基本变守势为攻势,把战线推进到38线以北的北朝鲜境内。)
51年秋天,朝鲜战争进入相持拉锯阶段。
著名的上甘岭战役发生在1952年的秋天,1952年10月14日-1952年11月25日。战斗的地点在北朝鲜中部。
联军把这次战役叫做“摊牌战役”,力求一击致命。如果联军突破了上甘岭,上甘岭以北再无防守。关于上甘岭战役的战况史事可见维基百科:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Triangle_Hill
Korean War

Korean War, conflict between Communist and non-Communist forces in Korea from June 25, 1950, to July 27, 1953. At the end of World War II, Korea was divided at the 38th parallel into Soviet (North Korean) and U.S. (South Korean) zones of occupation. In 1948 rival governments were established: The Republic of Korea was proclaimed in the South and the People's Democratic Republic of Korea in the North.

Relations between them became increasingly strained, and on June 25, 1950, North Korean forces invaded South Korea. The United Nations quickly condemned the invasion as an act of aggression, demanded the withdrawal of North Korean troops from the South, and called upon its members to aid South Korea. On June 27, U.S. President Truman authorized the use of American land, sea, and air forces in Korea; a week later, the United Nations placed the forces of 15 other member nations under U.S. command, and Truman appointed Gen. Douglas MacArthur supreme commander.

In the first weeks of the conflict the North Korean forces met little resistance and advanced rapidly. By Sept. 10 they had driven the South Korean army and a small American force to the Busan (Pusan) area at the southeast tip of Korea. A counteroffensive began on Sept. 15, when UN forces made a daring landing at Incheon (Inchon) on the west coast. North Korean forces fell back and MacArthur received orders to pursue them into North Korea.

On Oct. 19, the North Korean capital of Pyongyang was captured; by Nov. 24, North Korean forces were driven by the 8th Army, under Gen. Walton Walker, and the X Corp, under Gen. Edward Almond, almost to the Yalu River, which marked the border of Communist China. As MacArthur prepared for a final offensive, the Chinese Communists joined with the North Koreans to launch (Nov. 26) a successful counterattack. The UN troops were forced back, and in Jan., 1951, the Communists again advanced into the South, recapturing Seoul, the South Korean capital.

After months of heavy fighting, the center of the conflict was returned to the 38th parallel, where it remained for the rest of the war. MacArthur, however, wished to mount another invasion of North Korea. When MacArthur persisted in publicly criticizing U.S. policy, Truman, on the recommendation of the Joint Chiefs of Staff removed (Apr. 10, 1951) him from command and installed Gen. Matthew B. Ridgway as commander in chief. Gen. James Van Fleet then took command of the 8th Army. Ridgway began (July 10, 1951) truce negotiations with the North Koreans and Chinese, while small unit actions, bitter but indecisive, continued. Gen. Van Fleet was denied permission to go on the offensive and end the “meat grinder” war.

The war's unpopularity played an important role in the presidential victory of Dwight D. Eisenhower, who had pledged to go to Korea to end the war. Negotiations broke down four different times, but after much difficulty and nuclear threats by Eisenhower, an armistice agreement was signed (July 27, 1953). Casualties in the war were heavy. U.S. losses were placed at over 54,000 dead and 103,000 wounded, while Chinese and Korean casualties were each at least 10 times as high. Korean forces on both sides executed many alleged civilian enemy sympathizers, especially in the early months of the war.

Bibliography

See R. E. Appleman, South to the Nakong, North to the Yalu (1961); D. Rees, Korea (1964); B. I. Kaufman, The Korean War (1986); I. F. Stone, The Hidden History of the Korean War (1988); C. Blair, The Forgotten War (1989); S. Weintraub, MacArthur's War (2000); D. Halberstam, The Coldest Winter (2007).


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2 回复 meistersinger 2011-1-29 07:36
General Omar Bradley, Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff

I am under no illusion that our present strategy of using means short of total war to achieve our ends and oppose communism is a guarantee that a world war will not be thrust upon us. But a policy of patience and determination without provoking a world war, while we improve our military power, is one which we believe we must continue to follow….

Under present circumstances, we have recommended against enlarging the war from Korea to also include Red China. The course of action often described as a limited war with Red China would increase the risk we are taking by engaging too much of our power in an area that is not the critical strategic prize.

Red China is not the powerful nation seeking to dominate the world. Frankly, in the opinion of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, this strategy would involve us in the wrong war, at the wrong place, at the wrong time, and with the wrong enemy.
1 回复 郭凯敏 2011-1-29 07:41
meistersinger: General Omar Bradley, Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff

I am under no illusion that our present strategy of using means short of total war to ac ...
Thanks for providing the information.  Could you please be kind enough to include the source of information?  Thanks again.
3 回复 meistersinger 2011-1-29 07:48
郭凯敏: Thanks for providing the information.  Could you please be kind enough to include the source of information?  Thanks again.
Wiki. It does magic.
2 回复 郭凯敏 2011-1-29 08:19
meistersinger: Wiki. It does magic.
Got it. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_wrong_war,_at_the_wrong_place,_at_the_wrong_time,_and_with_the_wrong_enemy
2 回复 郭凯敏 2011-1-29 08:40
meistersinger: Wiki. It does magic.
美国早期的政策是全面消灭北朝鲜。当中国介入以后,美国放弃了继续全面消灭北朝鲜的政策。
如果我对他的话理解偏差不大的话,Omar Bradley 不确信美国有足够的军力打赢一场全面消灭共产主义的战争,而那可能是世界大战。美国只能同中国打局部战争。朝鲜甚至中国不是特别具有战略意义的区域,为此付出高昂的代价不值得。
中国并不是一个企图称霸世界的强国。同中国的全面战争,将是一个在错误的地点,错误的时间,同错误的敌人进行的错误的战争。
3 回复 meistersinger 2011-1-29 09:29
郭凯敏: 美国早期的政策是全面消灭北朝鲜。当中国介入以后,美国放弃了继续全面消灭北朝鲜的政策。
如果我对他的话理解偏差不大的话,Omar Bradley 不确信美国有足够的军 ...
是这样。可是这句话经常被引来说明美国不该开始就介入朝鲜战争。
1 回复 郭凯敏 2011-1-29 09:35
meistersinger: 是这样。可是这句话经常被引来说明美国不该开始就介入朝鲜战争。
应该理解为不应该同中国一战,可能引发世界大战,没有必要。
但是麦克阿瑟当年的确是想要打完朝鲜收拾中国,与蒋介石南北呼应,把中国搞定。可是这不是美国政府的政策。所以老麦给撤了
3 回复 伊兰泓 2011-1-29 14:01
也补习一下。谢谢两位。
2 回复 郭凯敏 2011-1-29 14:14
伊兰泓: 也补习一下。谢谢两位。
Legally, United States did not declare war against North Korea.  United Nations did.  China did not declare war in Korea against United Nations, the army was called 志愿军,meaning volunteers' army.
3 回复 伊兰泓 2011-1-29 21:48
郭凯敏: Legally, United States did not declare war against North Korea.  United Nations did.  China did not declare war in Korea against United Nations, the a ...
谢谢解释。
3 回复 mzou 2011-1-30 06:56
北朝鲜先打南朝鲜。中国不出击后果如何?
收藏了。
问好!
1 回复 yang6381 2011-1-30 07:23
开了眼界!
2 回复 郭凯敏 2011-1-30 08:43
mzou: 北朝鲜先打南朝鲜。中国不出击后果如何?
收藏了。
问好!
麦克阿瑟太过骄傲了,率联合国军从釜山一路打到鸭绿江边,放言要打过鸭绿江,而且对中国边境丹东进行过轰炸。如果中国没有动作,麦克阿瑟很有可能打进中国。美国人中很多人都这么认为下一步是搞中国。
2 回复 郭凯敏 2011-1-30 08:48
yang6381: 开了眼界!
美国当时的国情也值得考察。美国当时的反共情绪非常的高。著名麦卡锡主义起始于50年代初,持续了很长时间。麦卡锡是一个参议院,非常反共。美国很多人都被指控为共产党,连审问都不用,直接扔到监狱里。

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